Cuban Filibuster Movement  (1849-1856)

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The López filibusters seized Cárdenas, Cuba, on May 19, 1850.
The rebel flag appears on the burning Capitular House.



 
 

1850 proclamation
Narciso Lopez and filibusters

 
 



 
 
 
 
 

"Robert Reid died Cardenas island of Cuba
18 May 1850 aged 35 years"
Parish Graveyard, Manse Street
Saltcoats, Ayrshire, Scotland

 

BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS
A Flibustiero. Life of General Lopez, and History of the Late Attempted Revolution in Cuba. (1851)
Alvarez Pedroso, Antonio. Miguel de Aldama (1948)
Apuntes históricos sobre la espedición pirática que invadió la isla de Cuba en mayo de 1850 (1850)
Argilagos, Francisco R. Proceres de la Independencia de Cuba (1916)
Battles of Cuba! (1852)
Bellido de Luna, Juan. La Anexion de Cuba a los Estados Unidos (1888)
Bernal, Emilia. Francisco Aguero y Estrada: El Solitario (1935)
Betancourt, Gaspar and J. S. Thrasher. Addresses Delivered at the Celebration of the Third Anniversary in Honor of the Martyrs for Cuban Freedom (1854)
Bland, William. The Awful Doom of the Traitor; or the Terrible Fate of the Deluded and Guilty(1852)
Boggess, F. C. M. A Veteran of Four Wars (1900)
Boyd, Jesse W. Lopez's Expeditions to Cuba
Brownson, Orestes Augustus. Opiniones de un anglo-americano acerca de la espedicion cubana y los anexionistas(1850)
Caldwell, Robert Granville. Lopez Expeditions to Cuba 1848-51 (1918)
Castellanos G., Gerardo. Panorama Historico: Ensayo de cronologia cubana desde 1492 hasta 1933 (1934)
Castro de Morales, Lilia. Impresos relativos a Cuba editados en los Estados Unidos de Norteamerica (1956)
Coleccion de los partes y otros documentos publicados en la Gaceta Oficial de La Habana referentes a la invasion de la gavilla de piratas capitaneada por el traidor Narciso Lopez (1851)
Comunicaciones reservadas al Gobierno Supremo (Feb. 1850-Marzo 1851) Boletin del Archivo Nacional, Julio-Agosto 1918.
Correspondence Between the Treasury Department, &c., in Relation to the Cuba Expedition, and William Freret, Late Collector (1851)
Delaplain, Sophia. A Thrilling and Exciting Account of the Sufferings and Horrible Tortures Inflicted on Mortimer Bowers and Miss Sophia Delaplain, by the Spanish Authorities, for a Supposed Participation with Gen. Lopez in the Invasion of Cuba (1851)
Fernandez de Castro, Jose Antonio. Medio siglo de historia colonial de Cuba: Cartas a Jose Antonio Saco ordenadas y comentadas (1823 a 1879) (1923)
Fernandez Fernandez, Justo. Don Narciso Lopez y Uriola, el Centauro del Rey: Sus años de actividad en Cuba (1823-1826 / 1841-1851) Caracas, 1992.
Garcia Valdes, Pedro. La idea de la anexion de Cuba a los Estados Unidos de Norteamerica fue una consecuencia circunstancial del momento (1947)
Gonzales, Ambrosio Jose. Manifesto on Cuban Affairs Addressed to the People of the United States: Sept. 1, 1852 (1853)
Hardy, Richardson. History and Adventures of the Cuban Expedition (1850)
Jones, Alexander. Cuba in 1851 (1851)
Lansing, Marion F. Lopez and His Times. Liberators and Heroes of the West Indian Islands (1953)
Llaverias, Joaquin. La Comision Militar Ejecutiva y Permanente de la Isla de Cuba (1929)
_____. "La Voz del Pueblo Cubano" Contribucion a la Historia de la Prensa Periodica (1959)
Madan, Cristobal. Contestacion a un folleto titulado: Ideas sobre la incorporacion de Cuba en los Estados Unidos, por Don Jose Antonio Saco (1849)
Maicas y Dominguez, Antonio M. Homenaje al patriota Bernardino Hernandez (1951)
Manifiesto de la Junta Cubana al Pueblo de Cuba (1855)
Morales y Morales, Vidal. Iniciadores y primeros martires de la revolucion cubana (1901)
_____. Iniciadores y primeros martires de la revolucion cubana, tomo 2 (1931)
_____. Iniciadores y primeros martires de la revolucion cubana, tomo 3 (1931)
O.D.D.O. The History of the Late Expedition to Cuba (1850)
Pickens, Lucy Holcomb (H. M. Hardimann). The Free Flag of Cuba; or the Martyrdom of Lopez (1854)
Portell Vila, Herminio. Narciso Lopez y su epoca, tomo 1 (1930)
_____.  Narciso Lopez y su epoca, tomo 2 (1952)
_____.  Narciso Lopez y su epoca, tomo 3 (1958)
_____. Narciso Lopez, presursor de la independencia de Cuba. Vidas de la Unidad Americana. (1944)
Quisenberry, Anderson C. Lopez's Expeditions to Cuba 1850 and 1851 (1906)
Ramirez Hoyos, Vicente. ¿Quien salvó a Cuba en 1851? (1870)
Rodriguez, Jose Ignacio. Estudio historico sobre el origen, desenvolvimiento y manifestaciones practicas de la idea de la anexion de la isla de Cuba a los EE.UU. (1900)
Roig de Leuchsenring, Emilio. Los primeros movimientos revolucionarios del general Narciso Lopez (1848-1849) (1950)
_____. Homenaje a los martires de 1851 (1951)
Rosengarten, Jr., Frederick. Freebooters Must Die! (1976)
Rovira, Carlos A. y Carlos Echevarne. El coronel Ordoñez y Cuba en 1851 (1867)
Sanguily, Manuel. Propositos del General Narciso Lopez (1894)
Torrente, Mariano. Bosquejo economico politico de la isla de Cuba (1852)
Un cubano. La Anexion de Cuba y Los Peninsulares residentes en ella (1853)
Una accion heroica (1865)
Villaverde, Cirilo (a Flibustiero). Life of General Lopez, and History of the Late Attempted Revolution in Cuba
Works of Daniel Webster, Vol VI, (1890)
Zaragoza, Justo. Las Insurrecciones en Cuba, Tomo I (1872)
 

THESIS AND DISSERTATIONS
The Diplomatic Career of Pierre Soule (J. A. Reineke, Jr., 1914)
Cuba in American Foreign Relations (1848-1861) as Shown in Messages of the Presidents and Debates in Congress (Robert W. Mosley, 1930)
A Local Study in "Manifest Destiny": New Orleans and the Cuban Question During the Lopez Expeditions of 1849-1851 (C. Stanley Urban, 1938)
The Life of Appleton Oaksmith: Its Latin American Aspects (John Jay TePaske, 1953)
The Public Career of George Washington Towns (G. Wilson Page, Jr., 1970)
Empire for Slavery: Economic and Territorial Expansion in the American Gulf South, 1835-1860 (Kimberly Ann Lamp, 1991)
 

LA VERDAD NEWSPAPER (1848-1855)

La Verdad Newspaper
 

NEWSPAPER ARTICLES
1848
January-August 1849
September-December 1849
January-June 1850
July-December 1850
January-April 1851
May-August 15, 1851
August 16-September 14, 1851
September 15-December 1851
1852
January-June 1853
July-December 1853
1854
1855
1856-1860
 

The Attack on Cardenas: A Reliable andAuthentic Account by Officers Engaged in the Expedition Missouri Republican, June 23, 1850.
CubaThe American Whig Review, July 1850, 107-108.
The Threatened Cuba Invasion (N.Y. Weekly Herald, May 3, 1851)
Correspondence of the Herald, Boston Herald, Aug. 11, 1851,2
Monthly Record of Current Events, Harper's Magazine. Oct. 1851, 692.
"Important From Cuba," Baltimore Sun, Aug. 23, 1852, 1
The Trial and Conviction of the Publishers of the Voice of the People (N.Y. Herald, Sept. 21, 1852)
"Cuban Anniversary," Texas State Gazette (Austin), Sept. 16, 1854, p. 28
Filibusterism in America, New York Herald, Feb. 10, 1858
Cuba and the Ostend Manifesto, Harper's Monthly Magazine, May 1870, 898-901.
Interesting Incidents in the Career of a Veteran of Five Wars--Mexico, Cuba and Nicaragua, Times (Troy, NY), Dec. 13, 1888, 2
The First of the Filibusters: Reminiscences of the Lopez Expedition of 1850The State (Columbia, S.C.), Jan. 20, 1897, 6.
 

JOURNAL ARTICLES
Anglo-American Filibusters and the Gadsden Treaty. J. Fred Rippy. The Hispanic American Historical Review, Vol. 5, No. 2. (May, 1922), pp. 155-180.
The Africanization of Cuba Scare, 1853-1855.  C. Stanley Urban. The Hispanic American Historical Review, Vol. 37, No. 1. (Feb., 1957), pp. 29-45.
Cuba and the Tripartite Treaty. Edward B. Bryan. Southern Quarterly Review, Jan. 1854, 1-17
Cuban Filibustering in Jacksonville in 1851 Antonio Rafael de la Cova. Northeast Florida History Journal, Vol. 3, 1996, pp. 17-34.
Daniel Webster and the Politics of Foreign Policy: 1850-1852 Kenneth E. Shewmaker. The Journal of American History, Vol. 63, No. 2. (Sep., 1976), pp. 303-315.
Documents: Bleeding Kansas and Spanish Cuba in 1857: A Postscript (Kansas History, Winter 1988-1989)
The Domestic Consequences of American Imperialism: Filibustering and Howard Pyle's Pirates. Robert E. May. American Studies, Summer 2005.
Epilogue to the Missouri Compromise: The South, the Balance of Power, and the Tropics in the 1850s. Robert E. May. Plantation Society, June 1979, 201-225.
Expediciones Filibusteras Contra Cuba 1848-1860. Juan Pedro Yaniz Ruiz. Historia y Vida. Enero 1983.
The Cuban Expedition. Brownson's Quarterly Review, October 1850.
The Ideology of Southern Imperialism: New Orleans and the Caribbean, 1845-1860. C. Stanley Urban. Louisiana Historical Quarterly, Jan. 1956, 48-73
The Kentucky Regiment that Invaded Cuba in 1850 Antonio Rafael de la Cova. The Register of the Kentucky Historical Society. Autumn, 2007, pp. 571-615.
The Knights of the Golden Circle: The Career of George Bickley. Ollinger Crenshaw. The American Historical Review, Vol. 47, No. 1. (Oct., 1941), pp. 23-50.
The Late Cuba Expedition. De Bow's Review, August 1850.
Lobbyists for Commercial Empire: Jane Cazneau, William Cazneau, and U.S. Caribbean Policy, 1846-1878 Robert E. May. The Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 48, No. 3. (Aug., 1979), pp. 383-412.
Lopez's Expeditions to Cuba. The Gulf States Historical Magazine, March-May 1904.
Mr. Everett and the Cuban Question. Southern Quarterly Review, April 1854, 429-470
Narciso Lopez y el anexionismo en Cuba, en torno a la ideologia de los propietarios de esclavos. Candelaria Saiz Pastor. Anuario de Estudios Americanos, 1986.
The Navy and Filibustering in the Fifties United States Naval Institute Proceedings, April, May, June, July, August, September 1918
Reconsidering Antebellum U.S. Women's History: Gender, Filibustering, and America's Quest for Empire. Robert E. May. American Quarterly, Dec. 2005.
Recortes de periodicos de Cuba sobre los sucesos de Cardenas.Boletin del Archivo Nacional, Julio-Dic. 1920.
Reseña oficial de lo ocurrido en Cardenas cuando la invasion del General Narciso Lopez Boletin del Archivo Nacional, Enero-Dic. 1926.
Southern Designs on Cuba, 1854-1857 and Some European Opinions. Gavin B. Henderson. The Journal of Southern History, Vol. 5, No. 3. (Aug., 1939), pp. 371-385.
Southern Expansionism: Urban Interests in the Cuban Filibusters. Richard Tansey. Plantation Society, June 1979, 227-251.
Sugar, Slaves, and the Politics of Annexationism: Cuba, 1840-1855. Anton L. Allahar. Colonial Latin American Historical Review, Summer 1994, 281-304.
The Proposed Anglo-Franco-American Treaty of 1852 to Guarantee Cuba to SpainTransactions of the Royal Historical Society, 4th Ser., Vol. 13. (1930), pp. 149-185.
The Taylor Administration Versus Mississippi Sovereignty: The Round Island Expedition of 1849. Antonio Rafael de la Cova. The Journal of Mississippi History. Winter 2000, pp. 1-33.
Review of Tom Chaffin's Fatal Glory: Narciso Lopez and the First Clandestine U.S. War Against Cuba (Charlottesville and London: University Press of Virginia, 1996), The Florida Historical Quarterly, Summer 1997, pp. 88-90.
Young American Males and Filibustering in the Age of Manifest Destiny: The United States Army as a Cultural Mirror  Robert E. May. The Journal of American History, Vol. 78, No. 3. (Dec., 1991), pp. 857-886.
Young America. M. E. Curti. The American Historical Review, Vol. 32, No. 1, (Oct. 1926), 34-55.
 

THE CONGRESSIONAL GLOBE
1848
1849
1850
1851
1852
1854
 

THE UNITED STATES MAGAZINE AND DEMOCRATIC REVIEW
Cuba, Sept. 1849.
General Lopez, the Cuban Patriot, Feb. 1850, 97-112.
The Late Cuba State Trials, April 1852, 307-319.
The Neutrality Law: What Does it Mean, What Prohibit and What Permits, June 1852.
The Spaniards at Havana and the Whigs at Washington, Oct. 1852, 326-336
Personal Narrative of Louis Schlesinger, of Adventures in Cuba and Ceuta (I), Sept. 1852, 210-224
Personal Narrative of Louis Schlesinger, of Adventures in Cuba and Ceuta (II), Oct. 1852, 352-368
Personal Narrative of Louis Schlesinger, of Adventures in Cuba and Ceuta (III), Nov.-Dec. 1852, 553-592
The Cuban Debate, Nov. and Dec. 1852.
The Cuban Debate--Postscript, Nov. and Dec. 1852.
The Order of the Lone Star, Jan. 1853, 80-85.
Cuba: Philosophy of the Ostende Correspondence, June 1855.
 

GACETA DE MADRID
Octubre 1848
Enero 1849
 

HARPER'S NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE
Three Weeks in Cuba, by an Artist (January 18953)
 

ANTHEMS
Anthem of Narciso Lopez
 

CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION (1850-1950)
U.S. Embassy Havana, Despatch 677, March 24, 1950 (Cuban Invitation for Representatives of the United States Armed Forces to Participate in the Celebration of the First Centennial of the Cuban Flag)
 

CARTOONS:
The Great Naval Blockade of Round Island (Library of Congress)
The American Rover-General Wot Tried to Steal a Cuba (Puck)
La Hazañas del pirata López (Havana)
Gen. Lopez the Cuban Patriot Getting His Cash
 

CAT ISLAND
Cat Island newspaper articles 1871
Cat Island (Ray M. Thompson)
The Unparalleled Past of Cat Island (James J. Stettler)
With Casinos Calling, Island Won't Cash In
 

U.S. CONSUL AT MATANZAS
Thomas M. Rodney Letter Book, 1849-1853
 

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE:
Correspondence on the Lopez Expedition to Cuba 1849-51
Miscellaneous Letters July-Oct 1849
Miscellaneous Letters March-May 1850
Miscellaneous Letters June 1850
Miscellaneous Letters July 1850
Miscellaneous Letters Aug-Sept 1850
Miscellaneous Letters Oct-Dec 1850
Miscellaneous Letters Jan-Feb 1851
Miscellaneous Letters March-May 1851
Miscellaneous Letters June-Aug 1851
Miscellaneous Letters September 1851
Miscellaneous Letters October 1851
Miscellaneous Letters Nov-Dec 1851
 

U.S. NAVY
Bauer, K. Jack, ed. Naval Affairs, Vol.2, North America Antifilibustering Activities 1849-1855
Round Island Expedition: Defence of the Navy (1849)
Miscellaneous Letters Received by the Secretary of the Navy (August-November 1849)
Letters Received by the Secretary of the Navy from Commanders (August-November 1849)
Letters Received by the Secretary of the Navy from Commanders (April-August 1851)
Letters Received by the Secretary of the Navy from Commanding Officers of Squadrons (June 1849-November 1850)
Letters Received by the Secretary of the Navy from Commanding Officers of Squadrons (March 1851-April 1852)
 

CUBAN FLAG IN COSTA RICA
Museo Historico Cultural Juan Santamaria, Alajuela, Costa Rica
La Bandera de Walker
El General Jose Victor Zavala y la captura de la bandera cubana
 

DOCUMENTS
1850 Lopez Proclamations
Col. M. C. Taylor's Diary in Lopez Cardenas Expedition, 1850
Filibuster Correspondence (1849-1851)
Primer Acta del Consejo de Gobierno Superior (Nov. 14, 1849)
Carta de la Junta Suprema a Narciso López (Nov. 22, 1849)
Primer Acta de la Junta Suprema (Nov. 29, 1849)
Doctrina del periódico La Verdad (Enero 20, 1850)
Ideas fundamentales para una constitución provisional (Enero 9, 1850)
Proyecto de arreglo entre Narciso López y el Consejo Cubano (Febrero 1850)
Relato de José M. Navarro, empleado de la Aduana de Cárdenas
Secret Code Used by the Filibusters
Statement of the Kentucky Regiment
 

EMBLEMS
Coat of arms
Havana Club Flag
 

FREEMASONRY
Filibusters and Freemasons: The Sworn Obligation Antonio Rafael de la Cova. Journal of the Early Republic, Vol. 17, No. 1. (Spring, 1997), pp. 95-120.
Minutes, Solomon's Lodge No. 1, Savannah (1850-51)
 

GARIBALDI, GIUSEPPE
Affairs in Cuba (Baltimore Sun, Sept. 21, 1850)
Havana Correspondence (Boston Daily Evening Transcript, March 27, 1851)
Affairs in Cuba (Daily Ohio Statesman, April 14, 1851)
Departure of Garibaldi for California (Boston Daily Evening Transcript, April 30, 1851)
Further News of the Cuba Expedition (Baltimore Sun, May 3, 1851)
Movements of Distinguished Individuals (N.Y. Weekly Herald, May 3, 1851)
Cuba (Milwaukee Daily Sentinel & Gazette, June 4, 1851)
Garibaldi arrived in Panama (Baltimore Sun, Oct. 8, 1851)
 

GEORGIA MILITIA
Georgia Militia, Bibb County, 1846-49
Georgia Militia, Camden County, 1836-48
Georgia Militia, Chatham County, 1848-56
Georgia Militia, Cherokee County, 1849
Georgia Militia, Glynn County, 1848
Georgia Militia, Muscogee County, 1846-49
 

KENTUCKY
Kentucky filibusters in the Confederacy
Kentucky State Politics in the Early 1850's (Wallace B. Turner)
History of Shelby County, Kentucky (George L. Willis, Sr.)
Memorial History of Louisville (J. Stoddard Johnston)
Steamboats at Louisville and on the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers (Arthur E. Hopkins)
 
 

LOCATIONS
Banks Arcade (New Orleans)
The Battle of Cárdenas: May 19, 1850
Cárdenas, Cuba
Cárdenas, Cuba  (panorama)
Filibuster Monument  (Louisville, Kentucky)
Mujeres Island, Mexico
Last Lopez Expedition
 

MAPS
Cárdenas, Cuba
Cardenas 1851
Coastal Georgia in 1849
Kentucky counties 1846
Round Island, Mississippi
Round Island nautical map
 

NEWSPAPERS
Cincinnati Nonpareil (1850-1851)
El Pueblo (New York, Junio 29, 1855)
 

PAMPERO
Wreck of the steamer Pampero off the coast of Myrtle Beach, S.C.
 

POSTAGE STAMP
Centenario de la Bandera Cubana 1850-1950
 

LAST LOPEZ EXPEDITION PRISONERS
21 released expeditionaries traveling from Cadiz to New York, Aug. 25, 1854
 

ACTIVISTS
Agramonte, Gaspar de
Aguero y Aguero, Joaquin de
Aldama Alfonso, Miguel de
Allen, John "Jack"
Arango, Agustín A.
Armenteros Muñoz, Isidoro de
Arnao Alonso, Juan
Balser, James
Barton, William H.
Bellido de Luna, Juan
Betancourt Cisneros, Gaspar
Bombalier, Santiago
Breckenridge, Newton Colbert
Breckenridge, Robert H.
Brown, Levi
Crisler, Leonard
Crittenden, William L.
Davis, Ezekiel C.
Davis, John Eayers
Dear, Joseph C.
Estrampes Gomez, Francisco
Facciolo Alba, Eduardo
Fayssoux, Callender I.
Ford, John "Rip"
Frias Jacott, Francisco de
Gardiner, George A.
Gener Family
Goicouría, Domingo de
Gonzales, Ambrosio José
Gournay, Francis Paul de
Guiteras Family
Harney, Benjamin Mills
Harris, Thomas
Hawkins, Thomas T.
Higgins, John F.
Hoy, Thomas P.
Johnson, Albert W.
Kennedy, Thomas J.
Kentucky Filibuster supporters
Knight, W. T.
Kookogey, Samuel J.
Knott, Clark
Laine, Francisco Alejandro
Lama, John
Lamar, Mirabeau Buonaparte
Loño, Angel de
López, Narciso
Lovell, Mansfield
Luce, Alonzo B
Macias, Juan Manuel
Mádan, Cristobal
Mahan, Francis C.
Mann, Robert
Martin, James M.
McCann, John
McCleskey, George A.
McDerman, John
McDonald, Edmund H.
McGuffin, John
Mendive, Rafael Maria
O'Hara, Theodore
O'Sullivan, John L.
Oaksmith, Appleton
Pickett, John Thomas
Pintó, Ramón
Pomeroy, Augustus
Ponce, Antonio
Quintero, José Agustín
Quitman, John
Rawlings, Carroll
Reading, John
Redding, William
Robinson, Henry
Rosis, Tomás M.
Saco, Jose Antonio
Sánchez Yznaga, José María
Sayre, Burwell Bassett
Schlesinger, Louis
Scott, Malbon K.
Scott, Dr. Samuel S.
Sigur, Laurent J.
Smith, Joseph A.
Soule, Pierre
Spalding, Randolph
Taylor, Joseph W.
Taylor, Marion Cartright
Teurbe Tolon, Emilia
Teurbe Tolón, Miguel
Thrasher, John Sidney
Titus, Henry Theodore
Tosca, Basilio N.
Triplett, Robert S.
Turla, Leopoldo
Valiente, Porfirio
Villaverde, Cirilo
Walker, William
Wayne, Richard
Wheat, Chatham Roberdeau
WIlliams, John Stuart
Wilson, Fielding C.
Winston, Thomas M.