The American Civil War
U.S. Colored Troops

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African American troops, Aiken's Landing, Va., 1864.

Paying the teamsters in the Army of the Potomac, 1863.
  Burial detail at Cold Harbor battlefield, 1864.

USCT at an abandoned farmhouse in Dutch Gap, Virginia, 1864.
Hubbard Pryor, enlistment in the 44th USCT, April 7, 1864.

     Black body servant with Union troops in Va., 1863.
     Pvt. William Johnson, 23d USCT, executed for rape, Jordan's
     Farm, Petersburg, Va., June 1864.

Ellison, Mary. African-American Music and Muskets in Civil War New Orleans. Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association, Vol. 35, No. 3 (Summer, 1994), pp. 285-319
De la Cova, Carlina. Army Healthcare for Sable Soldiers during the American Civil War (2016) 

The Black Phalanx

African American Faces of the Civil War: An Album
African Americans and the War: Looking Over Jordan

General Thomas Organizing Negro Regiments down the Mississippi, Crisis (Columbus, OH), April 22, 1863, 104
Barbarities of Negro Soldiers, Crisis (Columbus, OH), Aug. 19, 1863, 238
Adjt. General Lorenzo Thomas order on contrabands, Alexandria-Gazette (Alexandria, VA), Sept. 1, 1863, 2
The Fiendish Massacre by Negro Soliders Near Island Ten, Crisis (Columbus, OH), Sept. 9, 1863, 259
A Military Slave Trade, The Press (Philadelphia), Jan. 1, 1864, 1

Bravery of Colored Troops, Elevator (San Francisco), March 18, 1870, 1

A Negro Deserter from the Wise Legion, Springfield Republican (Springfield, MA), March 1, 1862, 5
Our Army Correspondence, Farmer's Cabinet (Amherst, NH) May 15, 1862, 2
John Cook, a Negro Deserter, Times Picayune, March 15, 1863, 4
Provost Court, Times Picayune (New Orleans), May 15, 1863, 4
From Port Royal; A Negro Soldier Hung, Albany Evening Journal (NY), July 7, 1863, 3
A Negro Deserter Executed- Defenses of Folly Island, Evening Star (Washington, DC), July 8, 1863, 1
From South Carolina, Daily National Intelligencer (Washington DC), July 9, 1863, 2
Man Drowned, Boston Herald, August 12, 1863, 4
Negro Deserter Long Island Camp, Springfield Republican (MA), August 12, 1863, 4
Negro Deserter Boston, Crisis (Columbus, OH) December 9, 1863, 367
Negro Deserter Shot, Evening Union (Washington, DC) December 9, 1863, 3
Another Negro Deserter, Richmond Examiner, August 30, 1864, 1
A Dishonest Negro Recruit, Daily National Intelligencer, (Washington, DC) April 1, 1865, 1

The Execution of the Negro Soldiers at Hilton Head, Charleston Courier, Dec. 7, 1865, 1


Brief History of the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Regiment
The Civil War Letters of Colonel Robert Gould Shaw
The Brave Col. Shaw (Boston Herald, May 30, 1897)
Surgeon Charles E. Briggs, 54th Mass. Regiment
Pvt. James Riley, 54th Nass. Regiment
Dr. John T. Luck just exchanged (Boston Evening Transcript, Nov. 30, 1863, 2)
Dr. John T. Luck said no negro regiment officer is prisoner in S.C. (Boston Herald, Dec. 2, 1863)
Surgeon John T. Luck states the wounded prisoners of the 54th Mass. were well treated (Springfield Republican, Nov. 8, 1865)
Record of the Service of the Fifty-Fifth Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry (1868)
Massachusetts Soldiers, Sailors and Marines in the Civil War, Vol. 4 (1932)
Boston's Colored Veterans (New York Times, July 19, 1883)
Edgar Dinsmore Letters (Journal of Negro History, July 1940)
Emilio, Luis F. History of the Fifty-Fourth Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry 1863-1865 (1891)
Greene, Robert Ewell. Swamp Angels: A Biographical Study of the 54th Massachusetts Regiment (1990)
Jorgensen, C. Peter. The Making of "Glory" (Civil War Times, Nov/Dec. 1989)
Urwin, Gregory J. W. I Want You To Prove Yourselves Men (Civil War Times, Nov/Dec. 1989)
Westwood, Howard C. Captive Black Union Soldiers in Charleston--What to Do? (Civil War History, 1982)

DOUGLASS, LEWIS HENRY (Oct. 9, 1840-Sept. 19, 1908)
Lewis H. Douglass biography
Recommendation for discharge, Feb. 23, 1864

SWAILS, STEPHEN ATKINS (Feb. 23, 1832-May 17, 1900)

Stephen Swails 1860 NY census
Wife Sarah Thompson 1860 census
Stephen Swails 1870 SC census
Stephen Swails 1900 death certificate, Kingstree, SC

Record of the Service of the Fifty-Fifth Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry (1868)


54th Massachusetts
Jackson, Pvt. Thomas, Co. A
Jefferson, Pvt. Benjamin, Co. C; H. William Jennings, Co. C; Elias S. Rouse. Co. K

33rd USCT
Butler, Pvt. Thomas, Co. C
Haygood, Pvt. Abraham, Co. B
Patterson, Pvt. Stephen, Co. A
Powell, Pvt. Robert, Co. E
Lee, Peter, Co. F and Samuel Johnson, Co. C
Bland, George, Co. K, Joseph Black, Co. D, Charles Brinzard, Co. A, Davic Bram, Co. C
Carrian, March, Co. D, James Cashman, Co. A, Chance Chaplin, Co. E