COMMUNIST THREAT TO THE UNITED STATES

THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN

HEARINGS

BEFORE THE

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE

ADMINISTRATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY

ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS

OF THE

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY

UNITED STATES SENATE

EIGHTY-SIXTH CONGRESS

FIRST SESSION

PART I

TESTIMONY OF MAJ. PEDRO L. DIAZ LANZ

JULY 14, 1959

Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary
 
 
 
 

UNITED STATES

GOVERNMENT PRINTING 0FFICE

WASHINGTON : 1959

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY

JAMES 0. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman


 
 
ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee

OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jr., Missouri

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas

JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming

SAM J. ERVIN, Jr., North Carolina

JOHN A. CARROLL, Colorado

THOMAS J. DODD, Connecticut

PHILLIP A. HART, Michigan

ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin

WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota

EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois

ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska

KENNETH B. KEATING, New York

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY

ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman

THOMAS J. DODD, Connecticut, Vice Chairman


 
 
OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Ark

SAM J. ERVIN, JR., North Carolina

ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska

EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois

KENNETH B. KEATING, New York

T. G. SOURWINE, Chief Counsel

BENJAMIN MANDEL, Director of Research

COMMUNIST THREAT TO THE UNITED STATES

THROUGH THE CARIBBEAN

July 14, 1959

U.S. SENATE,

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE

ADMINISTRATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY ACT

AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS,

OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY,

Washington, D.C.


The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 10:40 a.m., in room 2228, New Senate Office Building, Senator James 0. Eastland (chairman) presiding.

Present: Senators Eastland, Dodd, Johnston, Hruska, and Keating.

Also present: J. G. Sourwine, chief counsel; Benjamin Mandel, director of research; and Frank W. Schroeder, chief investigator. Senora Pedro Luis Diaz y Lanz and Sergio Diaz Brull.

Chairman EASTLAND. Counsel, call your witness.

Mr. SOURWINE. Bring in the witness, Mr. Schroeder.

Chairman EASTLAND. Gentlemen, you can't have pictures made while the witness is testifying. The witness has no objection to television cameras being on him, but photographs interfere with the questions and with the testimony, so if you have any additional pictures to take, take them now. Stand up, please, Sir. Hold your hand up.

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee is the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir, I do.

Chairman EASTLAND. Mr. Counsel, proceed.

Mr. SOURWINE. Would you give your full name, please?

TESTIMONY OF PEDRO LUIS DIAZ LANZ

Major DIAZ. Pedro Luis Diaz Lanz is my full name.

Mr. SOURWINE. You are the former commander in chief of the air, force of the Cuban Government under Fidel Castro?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. You are 32 years old?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. You were born in Havana?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. You have credentials to show that you were head of Castro's air force?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. You have furnished those credentials to the committee?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Mr. Chairman, those were furnished in executive session and I ask that they be ordered into this record at this point.

Mr. EASTLAND. That will be done.

Mr. SOURWINE. You graduated from high school in 1944?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Did you go to college?

Major DIAZ. No, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. You are married?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Your wife is here with you?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. You were a commercial airline pilot for 5 years before the Castro revolution?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. For what airline did you fly?

Major DIAZ. Aerovias "Q."

Mr. SOURWINE. Were you the chief pilot for that airline?

Major DIAZ. No, Sir. I was copilot.

Mr. SOURWINE. Copilot?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Mr. SOURWINE. You flew from Havana to various points in the United States?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. To what points in the United States did you fly?

Major DIAZ. United States, West Palm Beach, Tampa, non-scheduled to Miami, and some other places out of the United States like Mexico.

Mr. SOURWINE. You are licensed to fly all types of airplanes including helicopters?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. And jets?

Major DIAZ. Jets.

Mr. SOURWINE. You escaped from Cuba quite recently?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. When did you leave Cuba?

Major DIAZ. On the 29th of June.

Mr. SOURWINE. How did you leave Cuba?

Major DIAZ. In a boat, Sir; sailboat.

Mr. SOURWINE. Who was with you?

Major DIAZ. Was my brother, Sergio Diaz Brull, Mr. Echegoyen, and my wife.

Mr. SOURWINE. There were four of you in the boat then-yourself, your wife, Sergio Diaz Brull, and Carlos Echegoyen?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. This was a sailboat?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Your brother Sergio had chartered it in Miami and sailed it to Cuba?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Then he picked you up and sailed it from Cuba to the United States?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Besides the brother who came with you in the boat, do you have another brother?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. We know you were reluctant to disclose your whereabouts while this other brother was still in Cuba for fear that Castro would take revenge on him. Is your brother now safely out of Cuba?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. You came to the United States voluntarily?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Your decision to come here was your own?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. You were not induced to come here?

Chairman EASTLAND. You mean that he testifies, counsel, that he came to the United States voluntarily.

Major DIAZ. That's right.

Mr. SOURWINE. When you came to this country you went directly to the immigration officials?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. You applied for admission?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. And that was granted?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. And you are not now in custody?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir. No, I am not.

Mr. SOURWINE. You are not?

Major DIAZ. No, I am not.

Mr. SOURWINE. Major Diaz, were you against Batista before you joined Fidel Castro?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Isn't it true that your father was anti-Batista?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Chairman EASTLAND. We will suspend for just a minute.

(Short recess.)

Chairman EASTLAND. The subcommittee has information from a source which we consider very reliable that an attempt will be made to injure the witness. I am recessing the hearing for 30 minutes and I want the room cleared. We will reconvene in 30 minutes in public session. Now, I want everybody out of this room.

(Whereupon, at 11:10 a.m. the subcommittee recessed subject to the call of the Chair.)

(The subcommittee reconvened at 12:05 p.m.)

Chairman EASTLAND. Let's have order, please. Proceed, Mr. Counsel.

Mr. SOURWINE. Major, were you against Batista before you joined Fidel Castro?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Isn't it true that your father was anti-Batista?

Major DIAZ. Yes, he was.

Mr. SOURWINE. Did your father have trouble with the Batista government?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr.SOURWINE. Will you tell us about that, please?

Major DIAZ. Well, my father was...

Chairman EASTLAND. Talk a little louder, please.

Major DIAZ. My father was an old officer of the national army. In 1930, during the period of dictator Machado, my father had a court-martial. Batista was the sergeant of that court-martial. After that, in 1934--I mean 1933--when Batista took power, the 4th of September, my father was in Cuba and he asked to him to come back to the army again.

Mr. SOURWINE. That is Batista asked him?

Major DIAZ. Yes. And my father told him he wouldn't receive orders from a sergeant, and from that moment you can imagine my father never had it, you know, too much opportunity in Cuba. And even in 1935 he had troubles and really he wouldn't join in any conspiracy or things like that. So during the Batista regime last time my father was in jail about two or three times.

He received very bad treatment in that time.

Mr. SOURWINE. Your father was anti-Communist before you, was he not?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir; all his life.

Mr. SOURWINE. And you have been anti-Communist all of your Adult life?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir; completely.

Mr. SOURWINE. Why did you join Castro?

Major DIAZ. I joined Castro because I did believe he was able to 'bring back democracy and freedom to my country.

Mr. SOURWINE. Why did you leave Castro?

Major DIAZ. Because he brought Communists to my country.

Chairman EASTLAND. Wait a minute now. You gave up your job as an airline pilot to join Castro, did you not?

Major DIAZ. Well, it was before I joined with him. It was 1953, November 1953 1 was against the Government and so for that reason I did lose my job.

Chairman EASTLAND. When did you join Castro?

Major DIAZ. I was in Santiago, Cuba, in 1956, late 1956, just at the time he landed, before he landed, just, you know, a small...

Chairman EASTLAND. Where were you with him?

Major DIAZ. I wasn't with him. I did work in the underground in ,-Santiago, Cuba, and I met him first time when I flew first time to the Sierra Maestra. I didn't know him at that time.

Chairman EASTLAND. Did you operate a plane bringing arms and Ammunition to him?

Major DIAZ. To the Sierra Maestra, yes, Sir.

Chairman EASTLAND. To Castro?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Chairman EASTLAND. You brought that equipment from Costa Rica?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Chairman EASTLAND. Mexico would not permit you to bring arms from there.

Major DIAZ. No, Sir.

Chairman EASTLAND. And you brought them from what place in ,the United States?

Major DIAZ. From Florida.

Chairman EASTLAND. Where, what town in Florida?

Major DIAZ. Lauderdale.

Chairman EASTLAND. Fort Lauderdale?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Chairman EASTLAND. Was it an abandoned airport there?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Chairman EASTLAND. Proceed, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. You say you left Castro because he brought communists to Cuba. When did you first. begin to have doubts about the Castro regime? When did you first begin to realize that Castro was not bringing Cuba freedom and democracy as you had thought he would?

Major DIAZ. In the first days of January I heard from him things like "If we don't attack Communists they call us Communists. Well, we are Communists." Later on...

Senator KEATING. Wait a minute; that was a statement made by Castro?

Major Diaz. Yes; by radio and television.

Senator KEATING. You heard him yourself?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir, everybody. And also through facts like the way he has been acting; anyone who has seen what he has done and is still doing it, have no doubt about that.

Senator JOHNSTON. So you reached your conclusions from his actions?

Major DIAZ. I beg your pardon.

Senator JOHNSTON. You reached your conclusions that he is a Communist from the actions of Castro?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir; through facts. I had the complete conclusion that he is a Communist.

Chairman EASTLAND. Did you hear Castro, Fidel Castro, make a statement about his methods?

Major DIAZ. Excuse me, Sir?

Chairman EASTLAND. Privately did you hear Fidel Castro make a statement?

Major DIAZ. Oh, yes. Privately I heard from him a lot of things that gave me the strong idea and to be completely sure myself that he was. Like, for example, once he said: "I know perfectly well the pure ideals of the "Che" Guevara and Raul Castro. I know completely their feelings. But the way they act they cannot reach the point and I can do it, the point that revolution have to reach in the way I do, will do."And things like: "I going to introduce in Cuba a system like the Russians had; even better than the Russian system."Later on he say: "I going to take now the land from the people who was with the former government. Later on I going to take the land of everybody." And during a conversation talking about...

Senator JOHNSTON. For the record, I think the one that he is talking with, we should know who he is.

Chairman EASTLAND. The man sitting by the witness is his half-brother, who is acting as an interpreter. He speaks English better than the witness. Proceed.

Major DIAZ. Interest you know from banks and things like that. And he said "well, some day the banks will disappear." And there is many more details. If you want it I can continue giving it to you, but it is a real great amount of details.

Senator KEATING. These statements were made in your presence. You heard them yourself?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir. That is the reason that I am here, and I did denounce communism in Cuba, and I did not want to be chief pilot of Castro's air force. I want to be a Cuban Air Force chief, not Castro air force chief. Also he is acting like a dictator in the worst dictatorship of the world, which is communism. And he does everything and he want everybody to accomplish his orders and nothing but his orders.

Mr. SOURWINE. Major Diaz, did you come to the United States with Fidel Castro last spring? Did you fly the plane in which Castro came to the United States?

Major DIAZ. No, Sir. I flew the airplane who brought the press.

Mr. SOURWINE. You brought the newspapermen?

Major DIAZ. The newspapermen, yes.

Mr. SOURWINE. Do you have information respecting Communist infiltration in the Castro government?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Is the Castro government infiltrated by Communists?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir; sure.

Mr. SOURWINE. What persons in the Castro government are Communists?

Major DIAZ. Well, of course, including Fidel Castro, is Antonio Nunez Jimenez, which is very well known in Cuba in front of the agrarian reform.

Mr. SOURWINE. What is his position in the Castro government?

Major DIAZ. He is in charge of the agrarian reform.

Mr. SOURWINE. Who else?

Major DIAZ. Minister of Defense, Augusto Martinez.

Mr. SOURWINE. Go on.

Major DIAZ. Excuse me, I got quite a few names. I have been squeezing my mind with so many details.

Mr. SOURWINE. Are these notes which you made yourself?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir. I did it myself. I dictate to my wife and this is her letters, her writing.

Senator KEATING. You are a dictator too, then.

Major DIAZ. Well, she can give proof of that. Armando Hart, Minister of Education; his wife, Vilma Espin, who has not only a certain position but she is everywhere giving her advice to everybody.

Mr. SOURWINE. Is she related to Fidel Castro or Raul?

Major DIAZ. She is the wife, Raul Castro's wife.

Mr. SOURWINE. Go ahead.

Major DIAZ. In the army you have got Raul Castro, Ernesto "Che" Guevara, Commander Pinero, who was in charge of Oriente Province, very well known there because he has done something that there is no doubt about his idea. Ramiro Valdez, commander in chief of the political police. I know something that the people in Cuba doesn't know about the existence of political police. Captain Pena, who is a very close assistant of Raul. Frank Torre in Santa Clara, Dr. Juan Escalona, one of the men who was with Commander Pinero in Cuba, a very well known Communist in Santiago, Cuba.

Lieutenant Pina; I am going to talk about him later on.

Comdr. William Galvez; Comdr. Delio Gomez Ochoa; Commander Lanuza, which is now in charge of the San Antonio base. It is an airfield, San Antonio base, former U.S. base during the war, the second war. And Commander Serguera, (Cerguera) who is a lawyer, a general lawyer that is in charge of the legal, you know, the army.

Mr. SOURWINE. Like the judge advocate general of the army.

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir. They have what they call the director of culture, and there is the indoctrination program included in that thing.

Mr. SOURWINE. Any other names?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Go ahead.

Major DIAZ. It is in the hands of Osmani Cienfuegos, a very well known Communist. The brother-in-law of Vilma Espin; Alfredo Guevara; and Gen. Alberto Bayo. There is some others, but really I cannot remember all the names.

Mr. SOURWINE. Mr. Chairman, I will state for the record somethingthat the members of the committee know. This witness has given the committee a great deal of additional information about Communists in Cuba, but for security reasons we don't want to ask further about that now. I do want to ask the witness this question: Is it true that you have, told this committee everything you know about the Communists in Cuba?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Major Diaz, is it true that the word "God" was, Stricken out of the new Cuban constitution?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Do you know why that was done?

Major DIAZ. Well, I understand only one thing from an action, like that. Communism does not agree with the church or religion, so it is a fact that the word "God" has been taken out of the constitution.

Mr. SOURWINE. Has Fidel Castro commented on that?

Major DIAZ. Well, yes, Sir. During a television program a newspaperman asked to him about that and he said "Well, let us talk about something important like agrarian reform."

Mr. SOURWINE. Major Diaz, is there any dissatisfaction among the officers and men who fought with Castro for freedom about the course he is following now?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir. There is a great dissatisfaction of, you know, the way the thing is taken. And there is a comment in between the people. Fidel say that the revolution was a green olive, not red, and even in the army they are starting to say it is like a watermelon, green outside but red inside.

Chairman EASTLAND. Let's have order, please.

Mr. SOURWINE. Major Diaz, how do you feel toward the Trujillo-government of the Dominican Republic?

Major DIAZ. Well, Sir, I feel like a democratic people all the way. I couldn't say that I am agreed with any dictatorship. I am not agreed with any dictatorship.

Mr. SOURWINE. You are against Trujillo?

Major DIAZ. Well, my ideas isn't in accordance, so I am against.

Mr. SOURWINE. Do you believe that the majority of the Cuban people feel the same way?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir, I believe so.

Mr. SOURWINE . Do you believe there is any danger that Castro and the Communists in his government are using the plea of a fight against dictators to cover up a Communist operation against other Latin American countries?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir. I believe that in using that argument, you know, they can confuse the people and make them receive help from everybody, and later on, you know, have what we have in Cuba. You know, we were fighting against a dictator or for democracy and freedom, and most of the people did help, and finally what they have, what we have is another dictatorship and communism.

Mr. SOURWINE. Major Diaz, do you know of any Communists in the labor movement in Cuba?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Name them.

Major DIAZ. David Salvador.

Mr. SOURWINE. Is he the top Communist of the labor movement in Cuba?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Are there other Communists in the labor movement in Cuba?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir; I know there are more but I don't know their names.

Mr. SOURWINE. You know it has been reported that Castro has eliminated the Communist leaders from the labor movement in Cuba. Is this true?

Major DIAZ. No, Sir; I don't believe; not exactly I don't believe. I am sure it isn't true.

Mr. SOURWINE. What is the truth?

Major DIAZ. The truth is-I have to go back for explain you exactly what did happen, you know, during the elections of th6 labor unions. In 1940 Batista made an agreement with the Communist Party in Cuba. After those elections that he won he gave the control to the Communists of the unions. In 1944, when Grau came to be president, you know, the laborers during those 4 years had a real hard time with them. They knew all the procedures and even for obtaining a job they have to file one of those forms of the Communist Party for obtaining job.

Mr. SOURWINE. Are you saying this is true now?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir; I believe so.

Mr. SOURWINE. That in Cuba in order to obtain a job a man has to file an application for membership in the Communist Party?

Major DIAZ. Yes, it did happen because I had some family, I have during the period of 1940-44. I am talking about during the period of President Batista. And I have family who for work had to do it, and he told me, so I am completely sure of that.

Mr. SOURWINE. All right, go ahead.

Major DIAZ. So, you know, the laborers had the opportunity to know the procedures, and to know them also. In 1944 it is well known that then he, the Prime Minister, he really did help in trying to get them out of the control of the unions and they finally did.

Mr. SOURWINE. Get the Communists out?

Major DIAZ. Get the Communists, yes. And they finally did. Now when the elections came over, Raul and "Che " Guevara made a very heavy operation to use and obtain the leadership of those unions. I know this because Pellon, one of the leaders which is anti-Communist, came over my house, just a few days before, I believe, and told me. He had a real bad time in trying to, you know, control the situation because they were under very heavy pressure from Raul and "Che" Guevara in trying to control the labor unions. But the laborers did react very well because they knew perfectly well the Communists, and they knew their procedures and they did not want it in their unions. So the Communists for that reason did lose most of the decisions because of the laborers. They did not want them. And there is the real fact. Then Fidel say that the 26th of July he won the elections and, you know, he was to be hanged the 26th of July, which is not true because he knew everything concerning the maneuvers of "Che" Guevara and Raul. Mr. SOURWINE. Do you know Carlos Franqui?

Major DIAZ. Yes, sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Who is he?

Major DIAZ. He is a Communist. Mr. SOURWINE. What does he do? Major DIAZ. He is a director of the Castro newspaper, Revolucion. That is the name of the newspaper.

Mr. SOURWINE. Do you know how "Che" Guevara regards Fidel and Raul Castro?

Major DIAZ. Well, they live very close to each other all the time, and once I was in front of them and "Che" Guevara say "My comrades, Fidel and Raul."

Mr. SOURWINE. Is that a term used in the army generally, in Cuba?

Major DIAZ. That is a Communist term, sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Major Diaz, while you were head of the air force-

Senator KEATING. If I may pursue that just a minute, is it used, here? Have you heard that phrase used by others?

Major DIAZ. Well, I don't have proof of that. I heard from, you know, "Che" Guevara talking with Fidel and Raul.

Mr. SOURWINE. You have heard them use the phrase "Comrade"?

Major DIAZ. Yes, sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. And you have heard that yourself?

Major DIAZ. Yes, sir, myself.

Mr. SOURWINE. While you were head of the air force did you obtain information about the establishment of indoctrination schools in the army and in the air force? Major DIAZ. Yes, sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Did Communists have key positions in these schools?

Major DIAZ. Yes, sir. I gave you some names.

Mr. SOURWINE. Where were these schools started?

Major DIAZ. Well, started, the main school was at El Cortijo farm. It is a place in the Pinar del Rio Highway intersection with auto Pista Highway.

Mr. SOURWINE. Do you know where there were other schools?

Major DIAZ. Yes, sir. In Minas del Frio they have a recruiting school there and they give indoctrination. It is an indoctrination school too.

Mr. SOURWINE. Did they start this indoctrination program in the air force?

Major DIAZ. Yes, sir. They send one professor on that matter and without even my knowledge and authorization. I was in command of the air force and someone else told me "Well, there is an order from the commander in chief, Raul Castro, and for 2 nights the3 have been giving, you know, indoctrination here, and also, you know a complete program with pictures, moving pictures and everything."

Mr. SOURWINE. Did you stop this?

Major DIAZ. Yes, sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Were complaints made to Fidel Castro about these indoctrination schools?

Major DIAZ. Yes, sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Tell us about that?

Major DIAZ. There is a lot of complaints even from officers directly, and now they have some kind of special situation. And even from all over the country...

Mr. SOURWINE. Do you know of any particular instances of a complaint or complaints that were made to Fidel Castro about the indoctrination schools?

Major DIAZ. Yes, sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Tell us about it.

Major DIAZ. It was a group of officers who went over him. I mean one officer and a few more members of the army; he was in Agauda de Pasajeros during the trip in a helicopter that later on I had a forced landing. They were all very excited and alarmed because of the Communist activities, and they wanted to talk with Fidel himself to explain to him everything. He didn't want to listen to them. So they explained to Celia Sanchez in front of us and my wife was in front, was present.

Mr. SOURWINE. Who is Celia Sanchez?

Major DIAZ. His secretary.

Mr. SOURWINE. After these complaints had been made, did the indoctrination schools continue?

Major DIAZ. I beg your pardon. I misunderstood. It was about the Communist activities in Santa Clara; excuse me, I misunderstood. It was another time a group of officers and myself. We did complain about the indoctrination in the Army.

Mr. SOURWINE. The complaint you told us about a moment ago was about Communist activities in Santa Clara?

Major DIAZ. Yes, sir. I misunderstood. Excuse me.

Mr. SOURWINE. Now you are telling us about a specific complaint about the indoctrination schools?

Major DIAZ. Yes, sir. It was during-the time Fidel went to, La Plata for sign and pass that law of agrarian reform, and they went there and he talked with them. I was not present at that time because I could not go back to the place because the water was very bad. I couldn't, go in the helicopter, but they did talk with him there, and after that I did talk with him in the airplane and I did explain to him everything. And even in the airplane I heard, you know, some of his explanations. He say "I going to take measures about that. I going to take all the Communists out" and things like that.

He went onto the television and said about that the revolution was green and not red, and give that explanation. It was his words, but the facts later on was completely different, because the indoctrination program did continue working, and I started to see more and more Communists in positions like this man, Lanuza, Commander Lanuza who wasn't during the war, the civil war or revolution, wasn't fighting.

He was in the government of Batista. And like Pina, he was in he Batista government even to the last moment, and they had key positions in the government at that time, and they were giving more and more positions to them. So it was completely different what he say and what really is the true facts, what he did later on.

Mr. SOURWINE. Did you have information about other complaints that were made to Fidel Castro about Communist activities?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Tell us what you know.

Major DIAZ. I cannot give the name now of the people who gave me the information. He is a very responsible people.

Mr. SOURWINE. You mean you cannot give it here publicly, Sir?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. But you told the committee?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. All right.

Major DIAZ. And it was a big pile of complaints about Communist activities all over the country sent from all over the country, and even he didn't told one of those telegrams or letters.

Mr. SOURWINE. Fidel Castro?

Major DIAZ. No, Sir; Fidel Castro did.

Mr. SOURWINE. Did you know a man in the air force who testified

on behalf of Ernesto De la Fe at his trial?

Major DIAZ. Yes, I did.

Mr. SOURWINE. Who was that officer?

Major DIAZ. His name is Silva.

Mr. SOURWINE. And what was it that he testified to?

Major DIAZ. He testified in a trial in which was involved Ernesto le la Fe. They also were trying to prove that he had something to do with, you know, a marriage, and he had proof that he wasn't involved in that.

Mr. SOURWINE. He had proof that De la Fe wasn't involved?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. And he gave this testimony. Was action taken against Silva because he testified for De la Fe?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Was this action taken on Fidel Castro's own orders?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir, personally.

Mr. SOURWINE. What was done to Silva?

Major DIAZ. He was commander in charge of the operation department of the air force and he went over to, you know, take him out of the position and the rank.

Mr. SOURWINE. You mean he was demoted to private?

Major DIAZ. Yes, demoted.

Mr. SOURWINE. Do you know of any other instances where a man was punished by Castro without having committed. any crime?

Major DIAZ. Well, Sir, there is a captain who was in an investigation of the Communist activities in Cuba during the former government and before that too. He was a man who had a lot of knowledge about the Communists, not only in Cuba, out of Cuba too. And they--not exactly they, Guevara, you know, Commander Guevara took him and put him in jail, and after that they shoot him from the war, right away after the revolution was finished, the first day, without any trial.

Mr. SOURWINE. This was a man who had been for many years in charge of anti-Communist activities for the Cuban Government?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. And he was shot without a trial?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Mr. SOURWINE. Did you go to Venezuela with Fidel Castro right after he came into power?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Did you go with him anywhere else outside of Cuba?

Major DIAZ. Well, apart from the time I came over here, no other place.

Mr. SOURWINE. How did you and Castro go to Venezuela?

Major DIAZ. Well, I went like passenger in the same airplane.

Mr. SOURWINE. You and he flew as passengers on a commercial airline?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Cubana Airlines.

Mr. SOURWINE. Cubana Airline?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Mr. SOURWINE. Were you with Castro in Venezuela?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Did he confer with any Communists in Venezuela?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Who?

Major DIAZ. The chief of the Communist Party there, Gustavo Machado.

Mr. SOURWINE. Were you present at that conference?

Major DIAZ. Yes; I was at the room at the moment he asked for come in. Castro gave him the authorization and he came into the room, and they started to talk there.

But it was very meaningful for me after that. In a few minutes, they went to the bathroom and they continued talking there in private.

Mr. SOURWINE. That is Fidel Castro and Gustavo Machado went into the bathroom to talk privately?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. How long were they there together talking privately?

Major DIAZ. He had the longest conference he had in Venezuela, more than hour, close to 2 hours.

Mr. SOURWINE. Do you know whether Fidel Castro and Raul Castro and "Che" Guevara had meetings in Cuba with Communists from other countries in South America?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Were there many such meetings?

Major DIAZ. Quite a few of them.

Mr. SOURWINE. Where were these meetings held?

Major DIAZ. Over Raul's house and "Che" Guevara's house and Cojimar whenever Fidel--you know he has different houses, places. Mr. SOURWINE. Is it your opinion that Cuba under Castro is being used as a base for Communist

operations against other Latin American countries?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir; I believe.

Mr.SOURWINE. Do you have any knowledge of Russian agents in Cuba under the Castro government?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. When did they come?

Major DIAZ. About May, I think. About May, I don't remember exactly the month. But they went to Cuba, two Russians, and appeared in Havana, even in newspapers it appeared about an invitation they had.

Mr. SOURWINE. How many Russians do you know about that were in Cuba?

Major DIAZ. In Santiago, Cuba, there appear two Russians wearing uniform.

Mr. SOURWINE. What uniform?

Major DIAZ.- You know, the army uniform.

Mr. SOURWINE. The uniform of the Castro forces?

Major DIAZ. Yes. And an interpreter was with them. They were put in jail and Commander Pinero put them free. And also in Matanzas. Province a couple of Russians, too, took a lot of pictures of the textiles industry there, and in Havana I have the information that they were in the Cabana, La Cabana. I don't know for sure if they were the same or others. Even I had information that from Eastern Germany it was five more coming to Cuba.

Mr. SOURWINE. Five more Russians?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. What did they come for?

Major DIAZ. Well, I think in the way Fidel is acting he is receiving some kind of, you know, scientific help in that matter.

Mr. SOURWINE. Has the Castro government given weapons to Communists?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Where was this done?

Major DIAZ. It was in Aguada de Pasajeros when I told you about this officer and a few members of the army who came over him, and they say to send scientists because Fidel Castro didn't want to listen at them, and they say that this man Frank Torre was giving military instructions to Communist Party members. And also that right after the revolution was over, they gave all the weapons that they took from the former army, to the Communist Party members, and that they were receiving that kind of training in Placetas, Sancti Spiritu, Cabaiguan, all over the province and this man was in charge of that, Frank Torre.

Mr. SOURWINE. You mentioned Frank Torre. Earlier you mentioned Torres. Is it the same man?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Mr. SOURWINE. Which is correct?

Major DIAZ. Torre. No "S."

Mr. SOURWINE. Did you ever see the Communist salute under the Castro regime?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Who used it where?

Major DIAZ. Raul Castro did in the May Day, is it Labor Day parade.

Mr. SOURWINE. The 1st of May?

Major DIAZ. Yes, the 1st of May parade, and did appear also women and men, laborers in civilian clothes with rifles on their shoulders, and they passed in front of the platform, also, and he did salute in that way.

Mr. SOURWINE. What do you mean by the Communist salute?

Major DIAZ. Well, right hand up with, you know, closed fingers.

Mr. SOURWINE. Do you have any information about the presence of an unidentified submarine in Cuban waters?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Tell us about that.

Major DIAZ. In the first days of January I had information of a submarine close to the north shore of Cuba. Also during the time I was sick, a friend of men who did work with me in the underground in Santiago, Cuba, a very dependable man, very serious, he told me he saw on the north shore of the Oriente Province during the time Raul Castro was controlling that zone...

Chairman EASTLAND. That zone. Let's see right there. There were two zones. The north zone, the north coast, was under the command of Raul Castro?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Chairman EASTLAND. The south zone was under the command of Fidel Castro.

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Chairman EASTLAND. And the south coast?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Chairman EASTLAND. And it was part of your duties to supply arms and equipment to the south zone?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir. Raul Castro didn't receive too much supply. And he saw a submarine close to the shore...

Chairman EASTLAND. That was in the north zone.

Major DIAZ. North zone, yes. And he saw strange people and he told me they wasn't speaking English or French or something like that. They were speaking Russian.

Mr. SOURWINE. That is what he told you?

Major DIAZ. Yes; and he was completely sure of that. And he told me that "I am sure it was a Russian submarine."

Mr. SOURWINE. Were these people that he saw, these strange people, wearing some kind of a naval uniform?

Major DIAZ. Yes, completely different for him. He say that he never saw before a uniform like that.

Mr. SOURWINE. Do you have any reason to believe that this submarine had any communication with the rebel forces under Raul?

Major DIAZ. It is very meaningful for me that Raul did not receive too much supply and he had a lot of men and a lot of weapons that I don't know from where. Well, I would say here now, but where it come from is very meaningful. The presence of that submarine, I believe he would receive, those weapons through that way.

Mr. SOURWINE. YOU think Raul Castro received weapons that were brought to him by submarine?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Mr. SOURWINE. Because he had weapons that were not brought to him by normal sources?

Major DIAZ. Yes, and he had too many.

Mr. SOURWINE. Since Castro took over in Cuba, are changes being made in the insignia on military equipment in Cuba?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Mr. SOURWINE. What changes?

Major DIAZ. A red star put on vehicles.

Mr. SOURWINE. A red star painted on military vehicles?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Mr. SOURWINE. Do you know what those red stars mean?

Major DIAZ. It is a Communist insignia, sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Do you know of any Americans who are connected with the Castro regime?

Major DIAZ. Yes, sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Who?

Major DIAZ. William Alexander Morgan.

Mr. SOURWINE. Wait a minute. What is Morgan's connection?

Major DIAZ. He is a commander.

Mr. SOURWINE. In the army?

Major DIAZ. Yes. He did work with the Second Foreign Esquadrille [Front Escambray]. And Jimmy Gentry, which is very close with Raul.

Mr. SOURWINE. Is he on Raul's staff?

Major DIAZ. Yes; and I have a knowledge about a sergeant, a former sergeant of army.

Mr. SOURWINE. A former sergeant of what army?

Major DIAZ. I mean assigned from the U.S. Army.

Mr. SOURWINE. From the U.S. Army?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Mr. SOURWINE. What do you know about him?

Major DIAZ. Well, he went over to "Q" Airways Building at the airport with a written order from Alberto Bayo.

Mr. SOURWINE. A written order from Gen. Alberto Bayo?

Major DIAZ. Yes; the order was for let him come to the States with his name changed.

Mr. SOURWINE. With a new identity, with an assumed name?

Major DIAZ. Yes, and an employee there told him he could not do it. That later on the officer in charge of the theater, the army investigation department, Dier, called direct to General Bayo. General Bayo told him that they had to accomplish that,order, so they did.

Mr. SOURWINE. So they did this?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Mr. SOURWINE. This sergeant was sent back to the United States under an assumed name?

Major DIAZ. Yes; receiving order from Gen. Alberto Bayo.

Mr. SOURWINE. Do you know what the mission was?

Major DIAZ. NO, sir; but it is very suspicious to me, receiving :orders from a Communist.

Senator KEATING. Bayo is a Communist?

Major DIAZ. Yes, a Communist.

Senator KEATING. Did this sergeant go back? I don't want to lose the trend of thought, but did he go back to Cuba again?

Major DIAZ. I didn't have any knowledge about that.

Mr. SOURWINE. For all you know he is still here?

Major DIAZ. I believe so.

Mr. SOURWINE. Under an assumed name on a secret mission?

Major DIAZ. Yes, sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Did you know that Castro had a plan to invade the Dominican Republic?

Major DIAZ. Yes,

Mr. SOURWINE. Did this invasion plan involve flying any men from Cuba to the Dominican Republic?

Major DIAZ. Yes, sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. In what kind of an airplane were these men flown?

Major DIAZ. C-46.

Mr. SOURWINE. Do you know where this plane came from?

Major DIAZ. From the States.

Mr. SOURWINE. From the United States?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Mr. SOURWINE. Was it purchased here?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Mr. SOURWINE. Do you know who purchased it?

Major DIAZ. Well, man in charge of that was Delio Gomez Ochoa.

Mr. SOURWINE. The plane was purchased in the United States by Ochoa's organization?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Mr. SOURWINE. And flown to Cuba?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Mr. SOURWINE. And then used to fly the invasion force to Santo Domingo?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Mr. SOURWINE. Could this have been done without the approval of the Castro government?

Major DIAZ. I don't believe so. For sure it could not be.

Mr. SOURWINE. Were you asked to fly an airplane to Santo Domingo in connection with this invasion?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Mr. SOURWINE. Did you refuse to do so?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Mr. SOURWINE. Why did you refuse?

Major DIAZ. I don't like the idea to mix up Cuba now in anything like that. And also one of the main reasons was I didn't want to cooperate for something that maybe will bring Communists to another country like did happen to us.

Mr. SOURWINE. Who asked you to fly this airplane?

Major DIAZ. Fidel Castro.

Mr. SOURWINE. Himself?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Mr. SOURWINE. Were you chief of the Castro air force when he asked you to fly this plane to Santo Domingo?

Major DIAZ. Well, I was, I believe I was Cuban Air Force Chief.

Mr. SOURWINE. After you refused to go on this trip to Santo Domingo, did Castro send another of his men then on that trip?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Mr. SOURWINE. Who?

Major DIAZ. It was a pilot, I don't know his name, from Venezuela.

Mr. SOURWINE. Did Ochoa go on that trip?

Major DIAZ. Yes; Ochoa, and Enrique Jimenez.

Mr. SOURWINE. Enrique Jimenez? Is he a Communist?

Major DIAZ. I don't believe so.

Mr. SOURWINE. But he is a Castro man?

Major DIAZ. He did work with him. I mean I don't have proof about him. Delio Gomez Ochoa is a very close man to Fidel Castro.

Mr. SOURWINE. Is Ochoa a Communist?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Mr. SouRwiNE. After you refused to make the flight to Santo Domingo, were you deposed as chief of the air force?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Within a few days thereafter?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Is there anybody else you know that was sent to Santo Domingo that you have not told us about here?

Major DIAZ. Yes; Copilot Orestes Acosta was the pilot of the airplane.

Mr. SOURWINE. Any others?

Major DIAZ. It was 58 men.

Mr. SOURWINE. Fifty-eight men in the airplane?

Major DIAZ. Inside the airplane, yes, in the airplane.

Mr. SOURWINE. What was the nature of the equipment which was carried in this airplane that flew on the Santo Domingo invasion?

Major DIAZ. They had on board airplane FAL rifles from Belgium, NATO caliber.

Mr. SOURWINE. You say NATO caliber. You don't mean they were NATO guns, only that they were the same caliber as the guns which are used in NATO?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir; for sure.

Mr. SOURWINE. Had the Castro government obtained any of these guns?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir; about 25,000 of them.

Mr. SOURWINE. The guns were manufactured in Belgium?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Mr. SOURWINE. The Castro government had purchased them from the Belgian manufacturer?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Mr. SOURWINE. And the guns that were sent on the C-46 which invaded the Dominican Republic were some of the guns that the Cuban Government had purchased?

Major DIAZ. Yes- from the first shipment.

Mr. SOURWINE. Do you have any information about this Santo Domingo expedition which you received from someone you trust in Cuba?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. You do not want to reveal that man's name publicly in order to protect his safety, but you have given the name to the committee in confidence?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Did you learn from this source that there were movements of troops and military supplies to the Isle of Pines?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. That was in connection with the expedition against Santo Domingo?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Do you know the names of any of those who went to the Isle of Pines?

Major DIAZ. Comdr. William Galvez was there, he is a Communist.

Mr. SOURWINE. Do you know him as a Communist?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Mr. SOURWINE. Who is Manuel Urrutia?

Major DIAZ. He is the provisional president of Cuba.

Mr. SOURWINE. Is he a Communist?

Major DIAZ. I don't think so, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Do you know of any instances in which Cuban Government airplanes were flown out of the country?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. What types of airplanes?

Major DIAZ. C-46 and DC-4.

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know the official Cuban Air Force number of the C-46?

Major DIAZ. 610.

Mr. SOURWINE. Do you know the official Cuban Air Force number of the DC-4?

Major DIAZ. 613.

Mr. SOURWINE. Do you know where the C-46 flew?

Major DIAZ. It flew over Nicaragua before the invasion started.

Mr. SOURWINE. Do you know who piloted that airplane?

Major DIAZ. Roberto Verdaguer.

Mr. SOURWINE. Did that plane carry Cuban Air Force insignia?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Mr. SOURWINE. Do you know where the DC-4 flew?

Major DIAZ. No, Sir.

Mr. SouRwINE. Did it make more than one trip out of the country?

Major DIAZ. About two trips. I don't know if later on they did any others. Mr. SOURWINE. When was that?

Major DIAZ. It was during the same days, a few days after the C-46 came back.

Mr. SOURWINE. That is at the time of the Nicaraguan invasion?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Mr. SOURWINE. Did that DC-4 carry Cuban Air Force insignia?

Major DIAZ. No. They painted, you know, the flag on the tail.

Mr. SOURWINE. The Cuban flag was painted off the tail?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Mr. SOURWINE. Do you have any inf6rmation about the condition of the C-46 which flew to Santa Domingo after it returned to Cuba?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Mr. SOURWINE, What was the condition of the plane?

Major DIAZ. It came back with about eight holes, bullet holes.

Mr. SOURWINE. Who succeeded you as head of the Castro air Force?

Major DIAZ. Commander Almeida.

Mr. SOURWINE. When Almeida took over as head of the air force did he tell the people that he was replacing you or only that he was going to occupy the position while you were sick?

Major DIAZ. He says that he was there only during the time that I was sick.

Mr. SOURWINE. You were actually sick, were you not?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Mr. SOURWINE. From the last week of May through all of June?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Mr. SOURWINE. What were you sick with? What was wrong with you?

Major DIAZ. I had typhus fever.

Chairman EASTLAND. Typhoid fever?

Major DIAZ. Typhus.

Mr. SOURWINE. Typhus. Now as soon as you got well, did you resume your position as head of the air force? Did you go back and take over your job as head of the air force?

Major DIAZ. Yes, I did.

Mr. SOURWINE. And did you hold a press conference? Did you issue a press release at that time attacking communism?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. You have given the committee a copy of that press release in executive session.

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Mr. Chairman, I ask that an English translation of that press release be printed in this record at this point.

Chairman EASTLAND. It is so ordered.

(An English translation of the document referred to reads as follows:

(Translation by the Library of Congress)

Press Department CIUDAD LIBERTAD, June 29, 1959..

"Year of the Liberation."

RELEASE TO THE PRESS OF THE REVOLUTIONARY AIR FORCE

This morning, Monday, June 29, Commander Pedro Luis Diaz Lanz, who had been confined to his home because of typhoid fever, a disease which he contracted when he drank water from the "Cienega de Zapata," when he had art accident several weeks ago and went down with his plane in that spot, an incident which received much comment and wide distribution in the country's news media, resumed his post of Chief of the Revolutionary Air Force.

Among those present on the occasion were numerous persons, civilians and military personnel, as well as reporters of the regular press, radio and television.

Commander Pedro Luis Diaz Lanz, upon resuming his post of Chief of the Revolutionary Air Force, stated:

"Having recovered from my illness I am going to resume my post and to do my duty once again," adding, "with respect to a comment which is being circulated in the press, to the effect that I had been a prisoner, I wish to make it clear that we revolutionists were prisoners only under the Batista dictatorship, and that it is impossible that under a democratic regime such a thing could happen to anyone who fights so that Cuba will recover her liberties."

Immediately thereafter, he proceeded with the following words [continued as follows]:

"Any threat, to which Cuba may be subjected on the part of the Trujillo dictatorship, or any intention of return on the part of the Batista elements who are in foreign countries, will find the people of Cuba united [in their determination] to repel them, and this humble servant in the first [front] line of combat."

In the final portion of his statements he emphasized:

"I am against every type of dictatorship, whether it is called Trujillista, Batistiana, or Communist, and I am not only speaking with my mouth. My past, present, and future performance have proved and will prove it, inasmuch as, freedom-loving as I am, I could never be in agreement with any dictatorial system, especially the most inhuman system of the world, the Communist [system]."

MANUEL IGLESIAS, Captain, Chief of Press, Radio and Television of the Revolutionary Air Force.

Mr. SOURWINE. Right after you issued that press release were you called before Fidel Castro?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Through whom were Castro's orders conveyed to you to come see him?

Major DIAZ. Through Almeida.

Mr. SOURWINE. Did you go with Almeida to visit Castro?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Where was that?

Major DIAZ. At Vedado. He has an apartment there.

Mr. SOURWINE. What happened when you got there?

Major DIAZ. Fidel was very angry and he told me that nobody would do something without his authorization; that everybody had to do whenever he gave an order, everybody had to accomplish that order.

Mr. SOURWINE. He said you should not have issued an antiCommunist statement without his specific authorization?

Major DIAZ. Well, he showed that he was very angry because I did those declarations, and after that he told me that I couldn't go back any more to the air force, and he told me, "You go home. I will see later on what I going to do with you."

Mr. SOURWINE. Did you go home?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. You prepared a resignation?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. And a statement?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir; I did.

Mr. SOURWINE. Major Diaz, since Fidel Castro took power, he has had a lot of people killed; isn't that right?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Have the people that he has had killed all been anti-Castro people?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Mr. SOURWINE. What is the nature of the opposition to Castro in Cuba?

Major DIAZ. Anticommunism.

Mr. SOURWINE. You mean that all of the opposition to Castro in Cuba is anti-Communist?

Major DIAZ. Well, there is people who was in the other government against him and many of them I believe are anti-Communists too. There is others that are anti-Communist and even fought in this revolution, and knows everything Fidel is doing, so they are against him. And the other part is the people who is anti-Communist and does not know what Fidel is doing, so.they do not oppose him.

Mr. SOURWINE. You are saying that not all the anti-Communists in Cuba are opposed to Castro?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir, who has that knowledge what he is doing.

Mr. SOURWINE. I want to get this clear. The anti-Conimunists who know what he is doing are opposed to him; is that what you say?

Major DIAZ. Yes; that is what I mean.

Mr. SOURWINE. But there are anti-Communists who do not know what he is doing that are not opposed to him?

Major DIAZ. Sure. They don't know. They still have some faith. They don't know about, you know, everything he is doing, you know.

Mr. SOURWINE. Has Castro persecuted all of the people who were in the former Batista government?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. He has?

Major DIAZ. Not all. There is a few who even have now some positions in the government, key positions.

Mr. SOURWINE. You mean there are people who were in the Batista government who have key positions in the Fidel Castro government?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Mr. SOURWINE. Who are some of these people?

Major DIAZ. For example, Lieutenant Pina, who did work in the government of Batista to the last moment. He is a Communist and now he is in the government, I mean in the army with Raul Castro.

Mr. SOURWINE. Did Pina fight in the revolution?

Major DIAZ. No, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Who else?

Major DIAZ. Commander Lanuza, and there is some others but I don't remember their names.

Mr. SOURWINE. Did Lanuza fight in the revolution?

Major DIAZ. No, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Do you think Raul Castro is the strongest Communist in the Castro regime?

Major DIAZ. I think it is Fidel himself. I am sure he is the man who give the orders and the man who decides everything.

Mr. SOURWINE. Is Castro friendly to the United States?

Major DIAZ. No.

Mr. SOURWINE. You know that Fidel Castro has said on some occasions that he is friendly to the United States. You are saying that this is not true?

Major DIAZ. He isn't sincere.

Mr. SOURWINE. Have you yourself seen instances of anti-American propaganda in Cuba under the Castro regime?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Give us an example.

Major DIAZ. Fidel Castro himself calls, you know, imperialistic Yankees; and we are going to have to fight the Americans, you know, the Marines; and harping all the time on those arguments, especially that we going to have to eat malenga- a vegetable, or something like that, very common in Cuba-and we going to have to fight against the Marines.

Mr. SOURWINE. Have you seen any instances of anti-American propaganda in connection with the indoctrination schools?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Tell us about it.

Major DIAZ. During the few days that they had that propaganda in the air force, that indoctrination, they show a movie picture named "The Defiant Ones," with Tony Curtis, and after they show that movie picture, they gave an invitation to all those present to go for a meeting, a kind of meeting. And then they say in the meeting, "You see this is democracy." They did -not say anything about that movie picture had been done hero in the United States for make public opinion about it, you know, against the racial segregation.

They didn't say anything like that. They say "This is democracy; there is what you have in United States; there is imperialistic Yankee; there is an inhuman system." Some were arguments you know and phrases very well known in the program of propaganda, through the propaganda of the Communists.

Mr. SOURWINE. You know there are many who say that Fidel Castro is not himself a Communist, that he is simply a tool or a captive of the Communists.

Major DIAZ. I am completely sure he is.

Mr. SOURWINE. You spoke earlier about the political police force.

Senator DODD. Why don't you get that clear on the record? You are completely sure he was what?

Mr. SOURWINE. I'm sorry, Senator.

Senator DODD. I don't think it will be clear on the record so we should clear it up.

Mr. SOURWINE. You are completely sure that Fidel Castro is what?

Major DIAZ. Is Communist.

Mr. SOURWINE. Has Fidel Castro established a political police force in Cuba?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Who heads that police force?

Major DIAZ. Ramiro, Comdr. Ramiro Valdez.

Mr. SOURWINE. You say the existence of this political police force is kept secret from the Cuban people?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Where does Valdez have his headquarters?

Major DIAZ. At Raul's house, Raul Castro.

Mr. SOURWINE. Do you know of an instance in which you yourself have seen the political police in operation?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir. Ramiro Valdez went over to the air force asking for two pilots of complete confidence.

Mr. SOURWINE. In whom he could have complete confidence?

Major DIAZ. In the pilots, yes, and he say that he want to make a trip to Miami and taking some officers of some, you know, high rank in the army. But instead of sending to the United States he want to send to Isle of Pines and put them in jail because in that way it could not be any scandal, and nobody will know about it.

Mr. SOURWINE. These were officers they wanted to get rid of?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Mr. SOURWINE. So they were to be put on an airplane and told that they were headed for the United States and the plane was to fly to the Isle of Pines and they would be put in prison?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Mr. SOURWINE. Did you give him the pilots that he asked for?

Major DIAZ. No, Sir. I refused to do something like that, to be used for something like that.

Mr. SOURWINE. I call your attention to an article by Ralph McGill under a Havana dateline which appeared in the Washington Star on Saturday. Have you read this article?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Mr.SOURWINE. There are some statements in this article which we think you should have a chance to answer. Had you made any arrangements with any other pilot of the Castro air force to leave Cuba with you or at the time you left?

Major DIAZ. No, sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Do you know Felipe Pazos, president of the Bank of Cuba?

Major DIAZ. I don't know him personally. I know only by Dame.

Mr. SOURWINE. You have never met him?

Major DIAZ. Never in my life.

Mr. SOURWINE. Mr McGill quotes Felipe Pazos as saying that before you joined the revolution you were a professional soldier of fortune engaged in flying in arms for profit. Did you, before you joined the Castro forces, ever fly any arms or ammunition?

Major DIAZ. Never, sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Anywhere?

Major DIAZ. No, Sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Any time?

Major DIAZ., Even when I was airline pilot I never was involved in any kind of contraband.

Mr. SOURWINE. Mr. McGill quotes Felipe Pazos as having charged that in Havana you associated with certain persons engaged in clandestine moneymaking operations. Is this true?

Major DIAZ. Never, sir. . I could not do, never in, my life, something against

my own cconscienc, myself.

Mr. SOURWINE. Did did you ever have anything to do with any black-market operations?

Major DIAZ. Never in my life.

Mr. SOURWINE. Did you ever crash in an aircraft that had not been gassed before the takeoff?

Major DIAZ. No, sir. I have a lot of years of experience, over 15 years.

Mr. SOURWINE. Did you ever in your life take off in an airplane which you had not made sure had been gassed?

Major DIAZ. No, sir.

Mr. SOURWINE. Did you in fact make a forced landing in a marsh?

Major DIAZ. Yes, sir; it was in a helicopter.

Mr. SOURWINE. What caused that forced landing?

Major DIAZ. I flew to Aguada de Pasajeros with Castro and after that I flew to a place named Cayo Ramona. I flew back to refuel from Cayo Ramona, and I had a thunderstorm on the way. I had to fly around the thunderstorm anyway, and my engine did quit and I had a reading in My instrument, the fuel gage, of 200 pounds of fuel. And I was about 20 miles from that place, so even I don't know if it was an engine pump fuel failure or the instrument was wrong or something like that.

Mr. SOURWINE. It was a mechanical failure of some kind but you don't know whether it was the instrument or the fuel pump?

Major DIAZ. For sure. It was indicating 200 pounds of fuel at that moment.

Mr. SOURWINE. Fidel Castro has called you a traitor. Do you want to comment on that?

Major DIAZ. Well, he say that I am a traitor, but my conscience is clear. I believe he is the traitor, not me. He did not say anything during the time we were fighting against the dictatorship. He. said: "We going to bring back constitution; we going to bring back democracy; we are going to bring back elections; we are going to bring back freedom."

. Well, what we have now? Who is the traitor? Most of us, we are not Communists, and he has given to the Communists all of the control of the country. He is practicing communism. There is a lot of facts. For example, there is a very well-known system, you know, procedure of the Communist system, of destroying the personality and reputation of the man which is against their procedures and their ideas, that they are against communism.

There is another fact: the way he is talking about me. I never have been a soldier of fortune. I didn't lose a position. I was a citizen. I never was mixed in politics or something like that. I am serious in working for making my own living, and I have been even coming to this country for several years. I never had even one trouble in the street or any other place.

And in my country the same. I have been an honest man all my life, like my father did show me through his own life, even my mother. That is their tactics. I don't going to say about him anything like he is telling about me personal things. I don't going to descend to their level. That is a Communist tactic. Everybody knows that, Destroy the reputation of the man who is against them for destroy the truth.

Senator HRUSKA. Major, he has called you the Benedict Arnold of Cuba. What would you say about that?

Major DIAZ. I wonder is United States in war with Cuba? Because it was during the war between England and United States.

Senator HRUSKA. That Benedict Arnold was the traitor to his country; is that your point?

Major DIAZ. Well, I read about that long time ago. I don't have in my mind the details, but I read that he was, during that war, a man who did something against his country; is that right?

Senator HRUSKA. That's right.

Major DIAZ. Well, but he was during that war. I am not doing anything against my country. I am trying to make the Cuban people and all the revolutionaries who really fought for freedom open their eyes and don't, you know, let this man Castro use Cuba like a tool of russia, with their international interests.

Everybody knows about that. They are using Cuba, so small, so tired of blood and terrible things like war.

He is dividing the Cuban people and making them fight each other. He is destroying everything. And we did not fight for that. We fought for freedom, for have back what we had lost. Have security, our human rights, democracy, elections. In other words, you know, what you have here in United States.

Mr. SOURWINE. Is the press in Cuba under censorship or Government control?

Major DIAZ. Yes, sir. They have quite a few newspapers. In the army, Raul has the Green Olive. In Santiago-in Communist hands of course is Sierra Maestra. In Havana is Revolucion. The rest of the newspapers have been censored, the censorships consisting this: When someone say something not exactly against, that does not agree with the laws or the measures of the government of Castro, he comes to the television with a list, you know, and he says that some money has been given from the former government to this newspaperman, for some reason.

And then he said "Look, a man who was paid for by Batista government telling that we are wrong in this and that," using the same system, destroying, using argument to destroy the personality or the reputation of each one who say something about some measure or something like that, which is not in agreeing, not only against, but which does not agree with only part of or one thing is counterrevolutionary.

Mr. SOURWINE. Are these Communist newspapers distributed free in the army?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Chairman EASTLAND. Wait a minute. There is a Communist paper in Cuba; named Hoy?

Major DIAZ. Oh, yes.

Chairman EASTLAND. IS. that paper distributed free in the army?

Major, DIAZ. Myself, Sir, I can say the Green Olive. I heard about

Chairman EASTLAND. You heard about Hoy?

Major DIAZ. Yes, six. But the Green Olive is distributed in the army. It has a lot of propaganda also against the United States, against democracy.

Chairman EASTLAND. That is Raul Castro's paper, is it?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Chairman EASTLAND. Who is the editor of that paper?

Major DIAZ. I don't know the names. And in the Revolucion there is a very well known Communist, Euclides Vazquez, who writes in the Revolucion.

Senator HRUSKA. You told us before of those who criticize in the newspapers as having their reputation destroyed and so on. Are they subjected to any other punishment besides that now?

Major DIAZ. Well, now in Cuba they did pass a law which says that any counterrevolutionary can be shot.

Senator HRUSKA. What is a counterrevolutionary?

Major DIAZ. Well, a man who is against the Castio revolution, and in Cuba they call it counterrevolutionary or traitor. They have a law they can shoot anyone.

Chairman EASTLAND. There is a paper named Revolucion, isn't ; there?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Chairman EASTLAND. Whose paper is that?

Major DIAZ. That paper, the editor is Carlos Franqui.

Chairman EASTLAND. Is he a Communist?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Chairman EASTLAND. Is that Castro's paper?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir; he handles that directly.

Chairman EASTLAND. The editor is a Communist?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Senator JOHNSTON. Did you mean to say just now that if a newspaper man writes something against Castro, that man might be shot?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir. You know they can use that argument for destroy even physically anyone who is against communism. So, for example, anyone would, anyone who says something that the government there is Communist, they say there is no Communists in the government, so that man is using an argument, they don't like it, and that man is a counterrevolutionary. So they can have a law, you know, and execute him to death. So it is another fact of the Communist procedure. So imagine now anyone in Cuba says what I say, and I did escape this time. Otherwise it would be another fact.

Mr. SOURWINE. You think if you went back to Cuba you would be in physical danger?

Major DIAZ. Well, I am completely sure of that, without any doubt.

Senator DODD. I want to be sure I understood you. Is it correct to say that there were Communists in the Batista government over a considerable period of time?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Senator DODD. And some of them have been continued on in the Castro government?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Senator DODD. That is all I have.

Senator KEATING. Major Diaz, President Urrutia has called you a traitor. He has said Castro's government has absolutely nothing to to with Communists. Do you want to comment On that?

Major DIAZ. I don't know about President Urrutia.

Senator KEATING. You do not believe him to be a Communist?

Major DIAZ. I don't know. It is always possible he say something like that. He should be under heavy pressure. I tell you what. During the last days, when a friend of mine who was anti-Communist and he has been released from his position, he was there as the Agriculture Minister. He was out of his position. They say he was incapable, but he was all the time, you know, during the campaign in the Sierra Maestra, and he is also very well known.

He is a capable man. For example, they say I am a capable -man too, and they have Almeida now in the air -force. They put him there because he was incapable and they put in there a man who does not know what is an airplane, how to fly an airplane. That is an example.

Senator KEATING. Has he ever flown, this man that is your successor?

Major DIAZ. Never.

Senator KEATING. I wanted to get your ideas about President Urrutia.

Major DIAZ. Yes. So he told me that Urrutia was in a very difficult situation. They were ready to get him out of the position, and they had information from some very, you know, responsible sources and he did make a statement against communism. So after that they were unable, you know, to get him out of the position right after hi's declaration. I believe he is not a Communist, but he has been under very heavy pressure for saying what he has been saying about me. That is the only idea that I have. I couldn't imagine any other thing, because I think he is a decent person and an honest people. I don't believe it would be any other reason.

Senator KEATING. Do you think these statements he has made have been the result of pressure?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Senator KEATING. When you say that a man is a Communist, will you explain what you mean by that? Do you mean he has a link with Russia?

Major DIAZ. I believe that there is quite a few Communists in Cuba that belong to the international organization.

Senator KEATING. Conspiracy?

Major DIAZ. Organization. Comes from Russia of course.

Senator KEATING. When you designate Fidel Castro and Raul Castro and others as Communists, do you mean to indicate that they do have a connection with the international organization?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir. Raul himself was behind the Iron Curtain. one of his men told me once about what he said about, you know, he told to one of his men about what he saw in Russia. It was a paradise and things like that.

Senator KEATING. When was he in Russia? When was Raul in Russia?

Major DIAZ. Well, I know he was in there for some time, but I don't know the date. I don't know. I know he went over behind the Iron Curtain. The same with Vilma Espin also.

Senator KEATING. One other point, do you favor the return of Batista to power?

Major DIAZ. No, Sir.

Senator KEATING. Are you as much against Batista as you are against Castro?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.. Any dictatorship I would not agree with them. I am a man who believes in freedom and democracy.

Senator KEATING. Have you had any contact whatever with Batista or with any one representing him since you left Cuba?

Major DIAZ. No, Sir.

Senator KEATING. Did you ever have any contacts with Batista or any representatives of Batista, either before or since?

Major DIAZ. No, Sir, I couldn't. I never will do it.

Senator KEATING. Are you a practicing member of the church?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir. I am Catholic.

Senator KEATING. I-have you ever seen-other than the elimination of the word "God" from the constitution, have you seen any other occasions or indications on the part of Fidel Castro or those in the Government directed against religion?

Major DIAZ . Well, there is during conversations, for example, when I came out of swamp area I was over to the central, you know, sugar plantation. We call it central, I don't know what you call the ,name. And I said in front of Vilma Espin who was there

Senator KEATING. She is the wife of Raul Castro?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Raul Castro's wife. And I say "Thank God, that I was so lucky. I didn't have even one scratch." She say, "Well thanks to your ability. What about God? Thanks to your ability; not to God."

All of them doesn't believe in God. And they sometimes act and talk in that way.

Senator KEATING. Now I want to also clear up another matter now in the light of some statements which have been made. Did you consult with anyone before leaving Cuba, any Cuban nationals of any kind?

Major DIAZ. No, Sir. It was my own decision.

Senator KEATING. You left there voluntarily?

Major DIAZ. Sure, Sir, completely sure. It was my own decision. I want to do something. What I did would make the Cuban people wonder about and open their eyes. And also it is going to make Fidel Castro act before time, before he is well organized, Communists are well organized. They working 24 hours a day organizing militarily, with military instruction in trying to obtain some more members and giving indoctrination.

For example, they use this procedure. They did in the air force. That professor they send to the air force, they make everybody talk about their selves and asking about "What do you understand for revolution"? For example, in front of me they asked to one of the boys there-his name is Leon. They asked to him "What do you understand?"

Senator KEATING. Who asked this?

Major DIAZ. The indoctrination professor who was there.

Senator KEATING. The professor?

Major DIAZ. That they had under my command. They say "What do you understand for revolution?" That guy say "Well, revolution is a complete change of system, political and social." And he say "Well, what is the main step for obtaining a revolution all the way?"

That guy say "Well, the capital should disappear, to have a revolution all the way."

A few days later on that man was sent to the main indoctrination school through this very meeting. After he say something like that he was sent to the indoctrination school, and he came out with a certificate that belongs to each of them saying that they were able to indoctrinate some other, and they were able, they did become to be a leader after they pass through that school. They had to be there all the time. They could not go out from the school, from 1 month to 3 months or something like that, completely isolated.

And the same they have now in the Minas del Frio.

Senator DODD. Do you know or do you have any idea or any basis for making an answer, will you tell us how many people were members of the Communist Party in Cuba?

Major DIAZ. I don't know exactly but I heard about 10,000.

Senator DODD. Out of a total population of how many?

Major DIAZ. Six Million.

Senator DODD. Then these indoctrination schools and this organization necessary if they are to have any real support in the country?

Major DIAZ. Sure, and if I did this probably the Cuban people open their eyes and they will react in front of the Communists. They will see where is it, and I think they never will permit anybody else introducing in Cuba a system like that because they know they are going to lose everything. Now the farmers, they are giving land to them and maybe they are confused, because they believe they are going to have now land.

But later on they going to find that they going to be the slaves working that land, and they finally doesn't going to have anything for themselves.

Senator HRUSKA. But Major Fidel Castro says that there will be an agrarian reform and this an will go to them. Isn't he sincere in that?

Major DIAZ. I don't believe so. You know the greatest plantation which is in Bayamo, they have what they call cooperative. And that land does not belong to them. They are working there you know. They call it collective farm.

Chairman EASTLAND. But the Government owns the land. That is the point you are making.

Major DIAZ. Yes, and that is a fact that that rice plantation belongs I think to a senator or something like that, and they have there you know one of those collective farms.

Chairman EASTLAND. They took the land?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Chairman EASTLAND. Said it would go to the landless peasants?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Chairman EASTLAND. But they organized a cooperative and the Government retains the title to the land; is that what you axe saying?

Major DIAZ. Yes, sir.

Senator KEATING. And you believe that the Cuban people, if given the facts, will reject communism, do you?

Major DIAZ. I am completely sure that the Cuban people won't listen to the Communists.

Senator DODD. If they get a chance.

Major DIAZ. Well, it happens a small group controls, and sometimes for good, sometimes for bad. The thing is when there is no democratic system that group should be always the same and nobody can move them from there and they will have the control of everything and they will be the owners of everything, even the lives. That is a Communist system.

Senator HRUSKA. I have just one more question and that has to do with the reports that from time to time the Government takes over factories or businesses. How do they do that?

Major DIAZ. Well, they can control the unions of the laborers, but in giving everything to the laborers without any discussion and giving everything that they want, pretty soon all the business can't operate because they have to pay more than they really make.

Senator HRUSKA. You mean they allow the workers as much wages as they want and it is wages they cannot pay?

Major DIAZ. For example, say in a hotel is slow, very slow, not too many people in the hotel and they cannot have so many employees because if they keep so many employees they cannot get any profit.

They cannot continue in business. So what happen is this, they cannot release any employee. So they cannot make any money. They are losing money. So they close the hotel. Then the Government comes, take the hotel and give it to the same employees to work. You know they themselves work and they make administration and everything of the hotel.

Chairman EASTLAND. Is that true of factories?

Major DIAZ. The Comodoro Hotel is working in that way.

Senator JOHNSTON. The Government owns the property?

Major DIAZ. I don't know if they have any agreement with the owner. In my concern they did not have anything done until the moment that I...

Senator JOHNSTON. The Government has taken over the property then?

Major DIAZ. Yes; well, there is no security for anybody, and nobody knows what they are going to have tomorrow. They have nothing done about the banks because it is very extreme measure, but they will do it if they have enough control.

Senator DODD. The chairman asked you about the industry, the manufacturing plants. Have they been taken over?

Major DIAZ. There are many closed because they cannot operate, and Fidel himself say that, they are going to take it and pay later.

Senator DODD. Pay what?

Major DIAZ. Pay later.

Senator HRUSKA. Are you saving, sir, that when the Opposition from the people will arise, that Castro will then use the same kind of forceful methods that the Communists used, but he doesn't want to do it right away? Is that stating your idea properly?

Major DIAZ. Sure. He knows he don't have too many supporters for that purpose. Only from the Communist Party all the way, of course. And now from the people who doesn't know the truth, but. is the days are passing, more and more people is starting to know about, all the way

Chairman EASTLAND. Did you personally hear Castro make that statement?

Major DIAZ. And then of course he is organizing and they working all the time, 24 hours a day, the Communists, and try to control more and more, With this case of Santo Domingo they have been taking some measures.

He say about a menace of invasion from Santo Domingo, so he took a lot of measures, you know, that are called safety measures, and things like that so he can control more and the people don't realize what he is doing, movement of troops and everything. And changing different chiefs from one to other place and demoting and doing things like that, with the argument, you know, very well known from him. So later on when the people get through, get able to know everything, maybe it be too late in that proceeding.

But in doing what I did, I believe the people will be able to see the truth before he plan, before he is well organized, before the Communists has the complete control and can use the violence and force and control the situation, and without any chance of failure.

Senator KEATING. Major, do you expect that your testimony here today will be reported accurately in the Cuban press?

Major DIAZ. 'Well, I suppose so.

Senator KEATING. You did not mean to imply that there were not free papers also in Cuba?

Major DIAZ. I don't know if they going to be able to say what I am saying here. I don't know. I don't believe.

Senator KEATING. I see. Are any of the papers in Cuba what we would call a free press, uncontrolled by the Government, or are they all censored?

Major DIAZ. Well, I explain a few minutes ago about the press that belongs to the Government and the other press there has been some kind of censorship.

Senator KEATING. You talked about the Communist press. The papers you mentioned were Communist papers?

major DIAZ. Yes.

Senator KEATING. Are there also non-Communist or antiCommunist papers, too?

Major DIAZ. Yes, there is, but they use that kind of control, that land of argument, for control of them. You know, a newspaperman who says something or writes something which is not in accordance with Fidel Castro, he comes over to television and says about that man and destroy his reputation.

Senator KEATING. You told us about that.

Major DIAZ. Destroy the truth, whatever he say.

Chairman EASTLAND. Didn't you sit behind Castro in an airplane?

Major DIAZ. Excuse Me?

Sometimes I cannot follow you, but the way I had the information about the procedure, he want to use for control, he maintain the highest percent of the public positions as long as he can, for organize himself and things like that. It is not a figure from myself. It came from Fidel Castro words I heard about that.

Chairman EASTLAND. Where he said he would use violence after he got organized, if that was necessary, is that what you are saying?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Chairman EASTLAND. You heard him say that?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Chairman EASTLAND. While sitting behind him in an airplane?

Major DIAZ. Yes.

Senator HRUSKA. And to whom was he talking at the time?

Major DIAZ. It was Nunez Jimenez and Celia Sanchez and it was Alfredo Guevara.

Senator HRUSKA. And who are they? Are they army officers or businessmen?

Major DIAZ. Nunez Jimenez is a Communist with the agrarian reform.

Senator JOHNSTON. I believe you stated in your testimony that there were many officials that were in the former Batista government that Castro is now having as officials in his government; is that true?

Major DIAZ. I beg your pardon? Yes, Sir.

Senator JOHNSTON. Do you know of any of the former officials that were in the Batista government that Castro is now using that are non-Communists?

Major DIAZ. Non-Communists?

Senator JOHNSTON. Yes, anti-Communists.

Major DIAZ. I don't know any of them.

Senator JOHNSTON. You don't know any of them.

Major DIAZ. No, Sir.

Senator JOHNSTON. So he has only picked the Communists that were in the government of Batista?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Senator JOHNSTON. To come over into this government?

Major DIAZ. Yes, Sir.

Chairman EASTLAND. Any further questions?

I will ask everyone to keep their seats until the witness and his family leave the room. We stand adjourned until the call of the Chair.

(Whereupon, at 1:45 p.m. the hearing was adjourned, subject to the call of the Chair.)