CUBA AS A BASE FOR SUBVERSION IN AMERICA
PRESENTED TO THE
SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE
ADMINISTRATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY
ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS
COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY
UNITED STATES SENATE
FEBRUARY 8, 1963
U.S. Government Printing Office
CUBA AS A BASE FOR SUBVERSION IN AMERICA
The Council of the Organization of American States, at the meeting held on October 24, 1962, agreed "to entrust to the Committee To Study Resolutions II.1 and VIII of the Eighth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of Foreign Affairs an urgent study of the transfer of funds to the American Republics for subversive purposes, the flow of subversive propaganda and the utilization of Cuba as a base for training in subversive techniques, presenting to the Council the pertinent reports and recommendations. In carrying out this task the Committee could make use of the advice of the Special Consultative Committee on Security * * *."
Availing itself of this permission, the first-mentioned Committee, in a note from its Chairman dated November 1, 1962, requested from the Special Consultative Committee on Security "technical advice in carrying out its study of the three aspects set forth above."
With a view to providing this advice, the Committee has been meeting at the Pan American Union since January 7 of this year. Initially only the following members attended: Mr. Manuel Campos Jiménez, Chairman of the Committee; Gen. Julio César Doig Sánchez, Vice Chairman; Prof. Joaquim Canuto Mendes de Almeida; Lt. Col. Julio César Vadora Rozier; and Lt. Col. Joaquín Zaldívar.
Owing to the resignations presented by Gen. Thomas D. White and Lt. Col. Francisco Marcelo Ramírez, the Council of the Organization, at the meeting held on January 16, 1963, elected Mr Paul C. Daniels and Col. Carlos María Luna as new members, and they joined the Committee on January 21 and 26, respectively.
At the first sessions the Committee considered its plan of work, which was presented to the Committee To Study Resolutions II 1 and VIII of the Eighth Meeting of Consultation at the joint session held on January 15, 1963.
In accordance with that plan of work, the Committee has prepared the study requested of it and wishes to make the following explanation with regard thereto:
(a) Owing to the short time the Committee has had to complete its work, it has not been possible to study all the problems included in the three general aspects that the Council's Committee is to examine. Consequently, this Committee has limited itself to presenting ideas and suggesting recommendations on those problems it considers of greatest urgency.
(b) The information from official sources that has been made available to this Committee by the Council's Committee has been most valuable in carrying out the study. However, this information was for the most part not only of a very general nature, but only that provided by five countries reached the Committee, and it has therefore been obliged to use information from other sources.
(c) The initial general report, prepared by the Committee in April 1962, already presents several aspects of Communist subversive activity and may be used by the Council's Committee in the study it is to make and in preparing the reports and recommendations that are to be presented to the Council of the Organization. This should also be pointed out with respect to the studies and resolutions of the Emergency Advisory Committee for the Political Defense of the Continent (Montevideo, 1942-48) and the document "Strengthening of Internal Security," published by the Pan American Union in 1953.
(d) The specific recommendations the Committee suggests in this study do not refer to any particular country. They include the adoption of certain measures that, in the abstract and without prejudice to other measures that may be better adapted to circumstances within each country, are considered technically necessary to counteract, at least in part, the subversive activity that international communism is carrying out in the Western Hemisphere, especially through Cuba.
It also presents them with complete awareness that the governments and peoples of the Americas have the right, the capacity, and the interest to confront the subversive action of international communism, and that if these recommendations are adopted, they will be applied, taking into account the statements made in the initial general report, chapter V.A. 9, V.A. 10, and V.A. 11.
(e) The appendix to this study illustrates, with specific cases, the techniques of subversive activity employed by communism in America and to which reference is made herein.
The facts and situations noted were compiled from information presented by the governments that replied to the request of the Council's committee; from public statements of authorities of various countries, including Communist countries, especially Cuba; and from other sources, since these facts are well known and generally accepted.
These facts and situations are noted without any attempt to pass judgment upon or to qualify the information and statements received from the governments and other sources.
(f) The Committee, in its initial general report, stated that
Communist techniques vary constantly and only by studying them continuously
and comparatively is it possible to come to any conclusions and to formulate
suggestions according to the circumstances. Consequently, this study should
be considered only as the first step of an examination that requires continuity.
I. COMMUNIST SUBVERSION
A. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
In its initial general report the Committee stated: "Communism operates on a worldwide scale. Its methods and procedures are adapted to the local conditions that will most favor its development, and they vary from simple infiltration for subversive purposes to the use of violence, according to the objective, the direction of the action, and the resistance that may be encountered." A chapter of the report was devoted to one of the basic techniques of Communist subversion: deceit.
In this report the Committee wishes to present, in summary form, other techniques employed by Communist subversion, which will make it possible to analyze better the subversive action that international communism is out through Cuba and also to assess the degree of danger that it represents to the member states of the Organization of American States.
In the initial general report it was also stated that "* * * the world is virtually at war--an atypical kind of war, which is being waged by international communism and suffered by the democracies. In this sense, it is undeniable that the Marxist dialectic has changed the saying of Clausewitz that 'war is the continuation of politics by other means,' to the assertion that 'peace is only the continuation of war by other means.'"
In a speech delivered January 6, 1961, Khrushchev pointed out three kinds of war: "world wars, local wars, and wars of liberation or popular insurrections." He said that this classification made it "necessary to devise tactics that are correct for each of these types of wars." With respect to world war, he declared that "Communists are the strongest opponents of such wars" and that "we can prevent the conflagration of a world war." He said that it was possible that in the future local wars could flare up, but that they would be extinguished "because they might turn into wars with thermonuclear missiles."
With respect to the "war of liberation" or "popular uprising," he said "they will come about as long as imperialism exists * * * such wars are not only acceptable but inevitable * * *. We accept such wars. We are supporting and we will support the peoples in their struggle for independence."
Khrushchev then continued by asking and answering a series of questions about this kind of war. "Can wars of this kind break out in the future? Yes; they can. Can there be this kind of uprising? There can be * * *. In other words, can conditions be created that will stir a people to lose patience and take up arms ? Yes; they can be. What is the Marxist position on these uprisings ? It is one of strongest support * * *." Then, after a description of the horrors of thermonuclear war, Khrushchev came to a very significant conclusion: "The victory of communism throughout the world is close at hand," but "war among states is not necessary to gain this victory."
Thus, the leader of communism declares that a world war is dangerous as a means of spreading his doctrine, but at the same time maintains the threat of a thermonuclear war as a means of intimidation and a type of blackmail to keep the free world from resisting Communist invasion. What Khrushchev describes as a "war of liberation" or "popular uprising" is really hidden aggression: subversion.
Exploiting the desire of the democracies to avoid war, particularly
under present circumstances, in which arms of great destructive power might
be used, the design of Communist expansion finds in subversion the least
costly way of acquiring peoples and territories without exaggerated risk.
Subversion, the techniques of which vary from simple infiltration to violent intervention, is conceived, developed, and perfected by the leaders of communism, who utilize it to carry forward their world revolution. Its aim is to replace the political, economic, and social order existing in a country by a new order, which presupposes the complete physical and moral control of the people.
That control is achieved by progressively gaining possession of bodies and minds, using appropriate techniques of subversion that combine psychological, political, social, and economic actions, and even military operations, if this is necessary.
B. SOME TECHNIQUES EMPLOYED
1. Recruitment, and training
In 1900, Lenin wrote: "We must train men and women who will dedicate not only their free afternoons to the revolution, but their entire lives." I. J. Peters, in his "Organization Manual of the Communist Party," explaining what Lenin meant by a professional revolutionary, said that such a person is a highly skilled comrade, trained in the theory and practice of revolution, tested in battle, who gives his whole life to the struggle for the interests of his own class. A professional of the revolution, he said, is ready to go wherever and whenever the party orders him and, if the class struggle requires it, he must leave his family for months or even years.
Communism, through an appropriate system of selection, chooses the most capable individuals for the ends it seeks. Then, in schools or training centers, these individuals are prepared as activists of all kinds: leaders, orators, and propagandists; experts in sabotage, espionage, and terrorism in all its forms; specialists in the handling of arms and radio equipment, in guerrilla warfare, etc. Recruitment is carried on preferably among students, teachers, workers, artists, and writers.
The Chief objective in training personnel selected to serve the ends of communism is to instill in them a mystique, subordinated, naturally, to the interests and decisions of the party. This training begins with primary courses, which are established and operated in all countries in which the party is organized, whether or not their existence is authorized.
After a selection, made according to individual circumstances and the results obtain in the primary courses, the individual is sent to an advanced school, where courses lasting a maximum of 3 years are given. These schools operate principally in Communist countries, and their aim is to train party members in all the techniques of subversion, as well as to occupy administrative posts in the party, or in unions or institutions of various kinds. This is apart from the existence in non-Communist countries of underground schools, where the same instruction is given.
At an even higher level, special academies operate in the Soviet Union and in other countries within the Communist orbit. These, such as the social science academy in Moscow, are devoted chiefly to training personnel in the higher echelons, who will occupy key posts in the party or in allied agencies.
Through this technique, activists are infiltrated into previously selected organizations and institutions in order, progressively and methodically, to gain absolute direction and control of them. To do this, the activist studies the problems of the group and takes advantage of those that are sources of agitation, exploiting them in such a way as to gain the group's adherence to party interests. In other words, the activist avails himself of all circumstances enabling him to attract non-Communists in the vicinity
His next step is to establish contact with and to attract those persons whom he may use as a cover for gaining his ends; that is, he takes advantage of "useful fools," working freely through them, and thus nsuring his own safety.
He carries out his work of agitation through conversations with various elements of the group, to whom he explains the need to fight for the objective and aim being sought. He takes advantage of these conversations to introduce disguised Communist propaganda and techniques and tries progressively to carry on such discussions in the midst of small groups.
Infiltration is undertaken in any social class, in governmental agencies, social and cultural centers, student groups, labor unions' and even in the armed forces. The priority and magnitude of that infiltration will depend upon the facilities found, the enviromnent in which action is taken, and the aim being sought.
3. Psychological impregnation
The individual action of the activists is complemented by well planned and developed psychological action. An effort is made to attract and convert indifferent people by exploiting the contradictions present in every organized society and the justified longings to resolve them. For this purpose, attractive material, easily accessible to the masses, is drawn up or prepared.
This tactic is called "psychological impregnation," and is carried out through the constant utterance and repetition of slogans adapted to the situation, as well as of affirmations and of carefully chosen topics. For this purpose, every means of dissemination is used.
International communism makes extensive use of all the techniques of psychological action. Propaganda, one of the most effective techniques and one that continues to be used, will be studied a little further on.
The object of dislocation is to weaken the social structure. Just as with psychological impregnation, dislocation skillfully exploits existing contradictions, student or labor conflicts, religious or social differences, etc., for the purpose of creating disorder and provoking violence. Thus, the people's discontent and justified aspirations are taken advantage of by the Communists to serve as a useful, and in some cases, highly effective means of creating disorder and driving the authorities to rigorous law enforcement and the consequent use of police measures. Freedom to congregate, the right to strike, and other liberties granted by democracy are abused; laws are labeled as antidemocratic or dictatorial, and the authorities are criticized and attacked as being solely responsible for the situation. With disorder thus stirred up, all kinds of arms are employed and offenses are perpetrated against individuals and also against public and private property, thereby inciting violent action on the part of the police, which serves the Communists' ulterior ends. If necessary, Communists themselves eliminate some of the demonstrators, in order to present them as "victims of brutal repression" and "heroes of the fight for liberation of the people."
In a parallel way, by means of the propaganda available to them, they undertake a campaign to misrepresent and discredit the government, the authorities, and all non-Communist individuals of any influence in society.
Finally, an effort is made to hinder or paralyze the development of trade and the national economy; to put to the test lawful means of internal security and to invent new actions to frustrate them; in short, to create uncertainty and chaos, in order to demonstrate the inefficiency of the power controlling the situation through lawful procedures. A propitious atmosphere is thereby created for total subversion.
5. Process of militarization
Through a process of proper organization, a military apparatus of growing complexity is created.
First, action or shock teams are created. These are small in number and are usually used for hand fighting, sabotage, or .acts of terrorism.
When properly trained and prepared military groups are available, with a sufficient number of people acquainted with the use of arms and explosives and having the necessary equipment, local bands are organized. To put these into actions, areas are chosen that, because of their geographic situation, offer facilities for hiding, moving, and supplying these bands, and at the same time present difficulties for action by the forces of order. The support of the people of these areas is sought, either voluntarily or by intimidation. The type of operations carried on is called guerrilla warfare.
When the area selected has been totally conquered still the people converted or vanquished, militia groups are organized control and defend the area.
The personnel of the militia, chosen for their combat experience and proven ideology, are strategically quartered to make up regional units, which, according to the way in which the revolution progresses, are converted into regular units, organized along more or less classic lines. These will constitute communism's army or principal force.
II. CUBA AS A BASE FOR SUBVERSION IN AMERICA
A. CUBA AS A TRAINING CENTER
The different media of information often describe subversive activities in different American countries and point to Cuba as center for training in the techniques of Communist subversion. Such reports are being furnished or corroborated at the present time by several governments that have experienced most directly and intensely the impact of subversive action.
An effort will be made in the following pages to present concrete data that will make it possible to reach conclusions on this subject.
1. Training centers
There can be no doubt that the creation and maintenance of a Communist government in Cuba facilitates to an extraordinary degree the subversive action of international communism in America. This is true not only with respect to the spread of the Communist ideology, but also--what is more dangerous--because it constitutes a center quite nearby for training agents of every kind whose functroll it is to develop subversion in the countries of the hemisphere.
It is an obvious fact that as the Communist regime became consolidated in Cuba, a series of schools and centers of training in the techniques of Communist subversion were organized, in which instruction is being given not only to Cubans but to many other Latin Americans for carrying on subversive activities in various countries of the hemisphere.
Among the many training centers that now function it Cuba, mention may be made of the following:
Blas Roca School, in Los Pinos, Havana Province.
Marcelo Salado School, in the Luyanó section of Havana.
El Cortijo School, in Pinar del Río Province, especially for military personnel.
La Cabaña Fort in Havana, especially for young people.
Minas Río Frío School, for training guerrillas.
San Lorenzo School, in the Sierra Maestra, Oriente Province, for training guerrillas.
Ciudad Libertad School, in Marianao, Havana Province, under Russian instructors.
Boca Chica School, in Tarará, Havana Province, Director, General Alberto Bayo
Julio Antonio Mella School, in Mar Bella, Havana Province, for training and instructing leaders of the Confederación de Trabajadores de Cuba Revolucionaria (CTCR) [Federation of Workers of Revolutionary Cuba].
A large number of Latin Americans attend these training centers, where they receive instruction not only in Marxist-Leninist theory, but also in propaganda techniques, the use of arms and explosives, sabotage, guerrilla warfare, and so on.
It should be pointed out that the corps of instructors in these schools is made up not only of Cubans or other Latin Americans, but also of instructors from other Communist countries; these speak Spanish.
The fellowship program announced bv Fidel Castro in his speech of June 9,1961, which included the granting of 1,000 fellowships for students of the various American countries, gives an idea of how, from its very first years, the Cuban Communist regime gave primary importance to the indoctrination and training of American youths in Communist techniques. By means of this and other programs, hundreds of American young people have received that kind of instruction.
2. Organizations denoted to the spread of subversion in America
In addition to the training centers, there are in Cuba some organizations whose purpose it is to carry subversion to America. There is knowledge that the following are functioning:
Junta de Liberación para Centro América y el Caribe (Board of Liberation for Central America and the Caribbean). Plans subversive acts and controls the sending of agents to that region of the Americas.
Junta de Liberación para América del Sur (Board of Liberation for South America). Has the same purpose as the foregoing organization; its action is planned for South America.
Organización Latinoamericana de la Juventud (Latin American Youth Organization). Its principal aim is to organize and train young people in subversive tactics.
Asociación "Latinoamérica Libre" ("Free Latin America" Association). Its aim is to place obstacles in the way of trade with the United States and to encourage trade with the Communist bloc.
Instituto Cubano de Amistad con los Pueblos (Cuban Institute of Friendship with Peoples). Its chief aim is to organize meetings and conferences of various kinds and to facilitate travel to Cuba for the purpose of giving instruction to students, workers, professional people, etc.
3. Congresses and meetings
Concurrently with the systematic preparation of Communist subversive agents a series of meetings, conferences, congresses, and so on are being held in Cuba, attended by the Communist elements of America and by sympathizers, the real purpose of which is to discuss plans, fix objectives, and issue directives that must be observed by the different groups, with respect to Communist subversive action of every form.
These congresses, conferences, and meetings bring together persons linked to the different fields of human activity: workers, students, intellectuals, athletes, etc.
In order to illustrate the foregoing it might be of interest to list in chronological order the various international meetings that took place in Cuba between January 1961 and January 1963:
Latin American Conference of Plantation Workers, March 1961, Havana.
Celebration of Latin American Solidarity Day, April 1961, in San Antonio de los Baños. Participating were Latin American and European delegates who attended the Latin American Conference on National Sovereignty, Economic Emancipation, and World Peace, held in Mexico City from March 5 to 8, 1961.
Congress of Central American Students, May 1961, Havana.
Seventh Congress of the International Students' Union, May 1961, Havana. Topic: "Latin America Against Yankee Imperialism.'
International meeting of voluntary workers, June 1961, Havana: sponsored by the International Students' Union.
International seminar on illiteracy' June 1961, Havana; sponsored by the International Students' Union.
Meeting of Latin American trade union leaders, July 1961, Havana; to exchange ideas regarding the World Trade Union Federation Congress, which was scheduled for December 1961, in Moscow.
Meeting to plan for the Congress of Women of the Americas scheduled for July 1962, July 1961, Havana.
Second meeting of Construction Workers of Latin America, August 1961, Havana.
Congress of writers and artists, August 1961, Havana.
Fifth Congress of the World Trade Union Federation, November 1961, Havana.
Fifth Congress of the International Newspapermen's Organization, January 1962, Havana.
Latin American Cultural Congress, January 1962, Havana.
Conference of Peoples (coincided with the conference at Punta del Este), January 1962, Havana.
Congress of Women of America, July 1962, Havana.
Latin American University Games, and Seminar on Sports in Latin America, October 1962, Havana.
First National Congress of the Cuban Federation of Women, October 1962, Havana.
Latin American Music Festival, October 1962, Havana.
Solidarity with Venezuela Week, November 1962, Havana.
Congress of Women of America, January 1963, Havana.
Mention should also be made of the numerous meetings held by the Cuban Government to celebrate this or that national event, to which delegations from the Latin American countries are also invited. In this connection mention may be made of ceremonies held in celebration of January 1, May 1, and July 26.
It is clear that Cuba is being used as a base for training in communism and its spread in America.
That activity of international communism, and particularly on the part of the Cuban Government, is greatly facilitated by the lack of suitable measures, and of cooperation among the American countries, to check the constant and heavy stream of travelers to and from Cuba. The importance of this problem makes it necessary to devote a special section to it.
B. CONTROL OF TRAVEL
1. General considerations
The nations that maintain normal and friendly relations recognize that it is desirable and even necessary to facilitate travel by their nationals across their borders as a means of strengthening cultural and economic ties, becoming better known, and becoming qualified and ready to support one another in the solution of their problems.
For this reason the documents necessary for crossing international borders have become less in number, the period of validity of entry and departure permits has been extended, procedures for obtaining passports and other travel documents have been simplified, the obligation to secure visas has been removed, the securing of foreign exchange has been facilitated, and so on.
These facilities are used by communism so that its agents may circulate freely and in this way introduce propaganda and move the money needed in planning, encouraging, and carrying on subversion. It has already been pointed out in this connection that it is of public knowledge that many individuals of antinational and communistic tendencies travel to Cuba for various reasons connected with subversion. Cuba is also utilized as the point of departure for trips to the Communist countries of Europe or Asia for the same reasons.
The need for guaranteeing national security in the face of this threat has obliged some governments to place controls upon the travel of their nationals to certain countries with which they do not maintain diplomatic relations, and in which, due to the lack of their diplomatic representatives, they cannot provide the usual protection or assistance, or to which they travel for reasons that might endanger the security of the country.
The nature, degree, and effectiveness of this control vary from country to country, and it is influenced very greatly by the degree of cooperation between countries in carrying it out. Many states have no control over travel to Cuba; in others such control has been attempted, but the means adopted are not effective; while in others control is limited to declaring travel illegal. Many control measures lose their effectiveness through lack of suitable equipment, deficient technical preparation, and the negligence or complicity of the personnel in charge of their execution.
No matter what degree of control may be attempted, this can become null when the national crosses the border of his country and remains outside of its territorial jurisdiction. Hence the importance of international agreements and mutual cooperation between countries, so that the laws on travel of a country are not flouted by its nationals when they enter another.
How are control measures flouted ?
The majority of Communist agents who enter a non-Communist country use false passports and documents in order to hide their identity as well as the purpose of their trip.
The nationals of a country who wish to travel to Cuba request travel documents to be sent to another country, where they make contact with the Cuban Ambassadors or special agents, who provide them with identification documents and permits to travel to Cuba, either to remain there or to go to another Communist country. In this way they avoid the marking of their passports with visas or notations referring to their trip.
In brief, the lack or ineffectiveness of control is due to legal causes, deficiencies in the administration of, or compliance with, control measures, and the lack of international agreements for extending this control beyond national borders.
The effective control of travel to Cuba must include both national and international procedures.
(a) National procedures
1. Make provision for every person who crosses an international border to have in his possession some travel document--whether a passport, safe conduct, or migration card--and enforce control over such documentation.
2. Prohibit travel to Cuba, as a general rule, and regulate the same so that only those persons may go who have valid reasons, such as those of a humanitarian nature. It would be well, in the corresponding stipulations, to consider the following aspects, among others:
(a) To limit the use of passports or other travel documents by means of an inscription stating that these are not valid for travel to Cuba.
(b) To declare any trip not authorized by the terms of the travel document to be an infraction of the law.
(c) To provide that every person desiring to travel to Cuba present a request to that effect at the passport office, and prove that he has a valid reason for making the trip. Permits should not be issued on the basis of such casual reasons as "vacation," "study," etc.
(d) To give wide publicity to the laws and regulations of each country in relation to travel to Cuba, and to send copies of them to the travel agencies and transport companies for due compliance.
3. Provide the Immigration officers at the ports, border crossings, and airports with a list of persons known to be agents or members of the Communist Party, and of those who have traveled to Cuba, for such control action as they deem necessary. For this purpose close cooperation is required between police and immigration authorities.
4. Make a note in the passports or other travel documents authorized by the government of the traveler the date of departure, date of entry, destination, and place of origin.
(b) International procedures
1. Study must be given to the best form of procedure to bring about close intergovernmental cooperation in order to exercise effective control over travel within the Western Hemisphere. To this end the signing of bilateral and multilateral agreements could be encouraged. It would be well to consider the following aspects in such agreements:
(a) Each government must observe the limitations imposed upon travel by the other governments. For example, country A must take the steps necessary to prevent the departure for Cuba of a national of country B whose documentation specifies that it is not valid for making such trip.
(b) Each government must inform the other governments, especially those of countries that are used regularly for travel to Cuba, regarding its laws and regulations on travel, in order that such laws and regulations may not be violated.
(c) When the Government of country A refuses to allow the departure for Cuba of a traveler from country B. it must so inform the diplomatic or consular authorities of the latter country.
(d) The officials responsible for controlling the entry and departure of travelers must examine minutely all of the travel documents in order to prevent violations of the terms of thosedocuments.
2. A system for the exchange of information on known Communists, subversive agents, and persons who travel to Cuba must exist between the governments.
III. TRANSMISSION OF SUBVERSIVE PROPAGANDA
A. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
Considering the primary importance of propaganda or publicity in the lives of nations, and the development it has now attained, it is advisable to point out that this means of so directly influencing the people is very effectively used by international communism.
This Committee, in its initial general report, fully pointed out the need for the democratic peoples to fight against the techniques of Communist deceit, a deceit that is practiced intensively through propaganda. It is therefore necessary to deal again in a general way with this subject, in order to point out the danger propaganda involves and to prompt the American governments to take urgently needed measures to cancel out or weaken its effects.
Pursuing this line of thought, it is desirable, in the first place, to point out the forms and the instruments that propaganda uses, in order to determine what measures could be recommended for counteracting it.
Obviously, the international Communist movement is constantly endeavoring to increase its propaganda. That increase and the danger represented by such propaganda can be measured, in part, by the number of organizations that are at its service; the circulation of newspapers and magazines, books, pamphlets, leaflets, posters, and, in general, all kinds of publications presenting Communist ideology; the number of radio broadcasts and showings of motion pictures; the organization of an attendance at festivals, congresses, meetings, lectures, and so on; the establishment and operation of training and indoctrination schools; trips to or from the Communist countries, and so on
The degree of this danger can also be measured by the resources that international communism invests to maintain the propaganda apparatus in the Western countries. But what best gives a true measure of it is the fact that the Communists themselves consider propaganda as one of the essential means of prime importance to the success of their political action.
The aim of this propaganda is to provoke social and economic chaos, weaken the governments, and bring the masses of the people into a prorevolutionary situation from which the Communists can launch their attack on the seats of power. Each Communist party, through its agitation and propaganda section, sows hate, doubt, and confusion, which carry with them the seeds of political and economic decay. Through these agitation and propaganda sections, the members receive, from the international headquarters or from the executive or central committee in their respective countries, precise instructions on the general topics they should develop. Then they adapt them to the local or national situation and exploit them, making use of all known media of dissemination of information.
Thus the propaganda activities are carried on by groups of activists who are disciplined to the maximum degree and work tirelessly to influence the decisions of the governments; of the political parties; of the labor unions and farmworkers' organizations; of the student, women's, and youth groups; of the intellectual, cultural, and sport centers; of centers representing racial minorities--in short, to influence all manifestations of the life of a country, capitalizing on legitimate national aspirations.
The tactics frequently change, but the objective remains unchanging: To dissolve or undo the democratic system in order to replace it with the dictatorship of the Communist Party.
B. SUBJECTS OF THE PROPAGANDA
The subjects of the Communist propaganda in America vary from country to country and from region to region, according to circumstances. Nevertheless, this variation is more one of form than of substance, since in all cases the particular approach is in accordance with the general program of Communist propaganda for America planned from abroad.
During the last few years the Communist propaganda has emphasized subjects of a general nature applicable throughout the world, such as disarmament, "peaceful coexistence," the ending of colonialism, and the material and scientific progress made by the Soviet Union; and special topics applicable to the specific conditions in the American countries, such as agrarian reform, local economic and social conditions, nationalization, "Yanqui imperialism," "the example of Cuba," "national liberation," and others.
In dealing with all these subjects, Communist propaganda uses the well-known method of deceit as a major element, especially the use of words stripped of their legitimate meaning.
C. INSTRUMENTS OF PROPAGANDA
1. Diplomatic and consular missions
The informational activity carried on by countries through their diplomatic and consular missions is well known and accepted. However, the use of these missions for purposes of political and ideological propaganda as a means of favoring subversion is relatively new.
To Develop their subversive campaign, the Soviet Union and its satellites abuse, in ever more alarming fashion, the prerogatives that the countries grant to diplomatic missions.
Connivance with local Communist Party members and the intervention and direct participation of diplomatic and consular agents of the Communist bloc and of Cuba in the internal affairs of the American countries have been publicly revealed on many occasions.
This Committee, in its initial general report, fully pointed out this problem, citing examples that clearly demonstrate the improper use of Communist diplomatic missions. The Inter-American Peace Committee has also called attention to this subversive activity and its consequences.(1)
2. Trade and technical assistance missions
Just as in the case of their diplomatic and consular missions, the Communists make use of their trade and technical assistance missions that have been established in certain American countries as one more instrument for spreading their subversive propaganda. Through these missions, the countries of the Communist bloc introduce techniques for sabotage, agitation, and propaganda in various countries.
In this connection, we should mention the formation of bodies or agencies to promote cultural exchange with the countries of the Communist bloc, most of which constitute centers of subversion arid of infiltration of activists.
3. Binational centers and associations for friendship or culture
Since 1945, international communism has employed a great profusion of front organizations to promote actions favoring its efforts and as a means of infiltrating democratic society. Among these we may mention the binational centers and associations for friendship or culture, which currently make a practice of organizing activities such as film festivals, artistic performances of various kinds, trips, lectures, congresses of writers and intellectuals, and so on, all of which serve the ends of Communist propaganda.
Radio is one of the means commonly used for the dissemination of Communist propaganda, not only because of its effectiveness but also because it is inexpensive in relation to the number of people it is able to reach.
One of the means that could be used to block radio propaganda would be interference. This is done with equipment known as "jammers," which interfere with the transmission by means of noises transmitted at the same time on the same frequency (or wavelength) from points equidistant from the offending transmitter and from the listeners, with power equal to or greater than that of the offending transmitter.
Now, the cost of such interference is approximately 10 times the cost of the transmission. In addition, it is only partially effective, as is shown by the well-known fact that the Soviet countries, the only ones that use this system, only manage to intercept 60 percent of the transmissions at the most. Moreover, the interference not only affects the transmitter it is intended to interfere with but also others that are within its radius of effect.
The above considerations indicate that, for technical and economic reasons, this system is not an effective obstacle to the Communist propaganda that is spread by means of radio.
(a) local broadcasts
The use of longwave (broadcast band) transmission for broadcasts of this sort makes it possible for the programs to be received on the ordinary sort of receivers that most of the people have. In regions or places where the literacy rate is low, this constitutes the most effective propaganda medium.
It is obvious that, with these advantages, local broadcasts become the most appropriate instrument for spreading subversive propaganda. Their use makes possible the establishment of a large radio audience over which the broadcasts can exercise an influence on their morals as well as their opinions and in which, thereby, it can give circulation to the rumors or theories that best suit the Communist tactics.
Equipment of amateur radio operators and clandestine stations are also used for purposes of Communist propaganda.
(b) Transmissions from abroad
The shortwave bands are usually used for this kind of transmissions, sometimes in prearranged combination as a network with longwave stations. Although the reception conditions are usually poor, from a technical point of view, the use of shortwave radio receivers has become common in the Americas.
On May 1, 1961, Cuba officially inaugurated its international broadcast service known as "Radio Havana Cuba," with intensive propaganda programs in Spanish, Portuguese, English, and French. The large number of hours that both this station and those of the other Communist countries devote to Communist propaganda for the Americas is a matter of common knowledge.
Telecommunications are frequently used by the Communists to transmit directives and instructions or as a valuable source of nonsecret information.
It may be mentioned by way of information, in connection with the utilization of these services, that all the communications companies that extended telegraph and telephone services to Cuba prior to 1961 are still maintaining those services, which permits that country to use those means for its subversive purposes throughout the Americas, as well as to obtain valuable information.
Because of its geographical position, Cuba is a center for telegraphic communications from the United States to the Caribbean region, and Central and South America. A cable message via Western Union Telegraph Co. for San Juan, P.R., is sent from Miami to Havana, whence it is automatically transmitted to the lines of Cable & Wireless, Ltd. That company can transmit the message either by land lines via Batabanó to Santiago, Cuba, or by submarine cable from Batabanó to Santiago via Cienfuegos, and from Santiago the message goes by submarine cable of Cable & Wireless, Ltd., to Kingston, Jamaica, whence it is automatically transmitted, once more by cable, to San Juan or Ponce, P.R.
5. Printed propaganda
Printed propaganda is one of the media most often utilized by the Communists to spread their doctrine and carry on their subversive activities. For these purposes they make use of both foreign and local publications.
(a ) Foreign publications
This kind of propaganda is spread through news services, nail, travelers, diplomatic, consular, and commercial missions, an d by clandestine means.
The introduction of these publications by travelers is another method commonly used by the Communists to disseminate their propaganda. While it is difficult for ordinary travelers to transport large amounts of propaganda of this sort, this is not true of those who travel under the protection of official or diplomatic passports, and this is an important channel for the entry of subversive propaganda.
The introduction of propaganda by taking advantage of diplomatic and consular privileges is the major method of introducing printed propaganda to the American countries.
The entry of propaganda by clandestine methods is accomplished in the most varied ways. Since it is a form of contraband, it is necessary to maintain extreme police and customs vigilance with respect to it.
Communist activity in the field of printed propaganda is constantly increasing. Publications of the Sino-Soviet bloc, as well as Cuban ones, are distributed in enormous quantities in the Americas. Their entry is facilitated by the diplomatic relations that some American countries maintain with Cuba and other Communist countries.
Communist publications are often freely sold in various American countries. More than 100 periodicals of the Sino-Soviet bloc circulate in America, most of them printed in Spanish, some in French, Portuguese, English, and East European languages. In addition, many publications of international Communist front organizations circulate. Translations and editions of many books of Communist propaganda are printed in Communist publishing houses that exist in certain American countries. Most of them now are published by the National Press of Cuba, from which country they are distributed to the rest of America. In addition, it is pertinent to point out, in 1961 alone Cuba imported 250,000 copies of works of Mao-Tse-Tung in Spanish, and these, as well as the books "Guerra de Guerrillas" (Guerrilla Warfare) by Ernesto Guevara and "Ciento Cincuenta Preguntas a un Guerrillero" (One Hundred and Fifty Questions to a Guerrilla Fighter) by Gen. Alberto Bayo, circulate extensively in America.
The Cuban news service Prensa Latina, which maintains direct contact with all the new services of the Communist countries, operates legally or illegally in several American countries.
(b) local publications
In the majority of the American countries, local Communist publications are published clandestinely and can be reproduced without formal printing equipment, which makes control of them more difficult. This propaganda takes the form\ of pamphlets, bulletins, leaflets, weeklies, posters, and so on, which are distributed in large volume at moments that the Communists consider most opportune.
Their effectiveness and danger are greater because they exploit local topics and problems immediately, endeavoring to stir up the feelings of the people in order to provoke disorders and incite revolts.
6. Motion pares and, television
Motion pictures and television are utilized as a very valuable instrument for spreading Communist propaganda, since the combination of the visual and the auditory stimulus assures a degree of concentration of attention not achieved by other media. Films produced in Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, the Soviet Union, and Communist China, almost all of them propagandistic in nature, are constantly being shown in the Americas, as are film stories and documentaries on the Cuban revolution, produced by the Cuban Institute of Motion Picture Art and Industry, which contain propaganda clearly intended to exploit the topic of "the example of Cuba." This type of propaganda, which is usually of a concealed variety shows deceitful images of the Communist regime, presenting accomplishments and ways of life intended to attract adepts from among gullible spectators.
Mention should also be made of the Communists' use of the resources of art in general. The theater, particularly, serves the ends of their propaganda in an outstanding war by bringing together a large number of national artists of the American countries who sometimes unknowingly become active propagandists by performing Communist works. The so-called "free theaters" are a typical example of this kind of activity.
The Communist propaganda from Cuba and the Sino-Soviet bloc is constantly increasing and radiates to all the countries of the Western Hemisphere, taking maximum advantage of all means of dissemination. Essentially, the aim of this propaganda is to destroy the foundations of democracy, fomenting and exploiting for its own benefit the social, religious, political, economic, and racial problems that exist, to a greater or lesser degree, in the American countries.
Communist propaganda constitutes a form of subversive action that is just as dangerous to the internal security of the American nations as any other form subversion takes, and, likewise, represents a serious threat to the peace and security of America.
It must be recognized that, so far, there is no real awareness in the American countries of the danger to their security that lies in adopting a passive attitude toward the activity of Communist propaganda.
This Committee submits the following recommendations [on action to be taken by the governments] for consideration by the Committee of the Council:
In general, that each American country should have the agencies needed to enable it to plan, direct, and carry on the psychological action (propaganda and counterpropaganda) to counteract, weaken, or cancel out the Communist propaganda that is carried on through any medium.
In particular, with regard to the use of the various instruments, and in the order in which they have been dealt with in the preceding pages:
1. Diplomatic and consular missions
(a) The governments of the American countries that still maintain diplomatic relations with the countries of the Sino-Soviet bloc and Cuba should establish, with respect to the members of the missions of those countries, the same limitations that are imposed on the members of their own missions in the countries of the Sino-Soviet bloc, particularly as regards their movement and circulation and the exercise of privileges. It would likewise be advisable to take measures to limit the number of officials making up the missions of those countries.
2. Trade and technical assistance
(a) To establish strict supervision of the trade and technical missions of the countries of the Communist bloc.
(b) To keep careful watch over the national organizations for trade with the Communist countries.
3. Binational centers and friendship and Stare societies
(a) To exercise control over the various entities of this nature whose programs or activities tend to carry on propaganda or subversion of a Communist nature.
(b) To limit all activities (lectures, festivals, art and sport missions, congresses, dramas, exhibitions, etc.) that tend to favor Communist propaganda.
4. Radio propaganda
(a) To exercise strict control over the broadcasts of the legally established radio stations for the purpose of severely punishing those guilty of carrying on propaganda activities of a Communist nature.
(b) To locate and suppress clandestine transmitters, punishing the owners.
(c) To regulate the activities of amateur radio operators and to exercise strict control over their transmissions by appropriate technical means.
(d ) To regulate the importation, purchase, and installation of radio transmitter equipment and supplies.
(a) To control and reduce to a minimum the traffic conducted from and to the countries of the Communist bloc.
(b) As regards telecommunications that must be made via Cuba, it would be advisable for technical experts in the subject to make a study of means to reroute the traffic that now goes that way.
6. Printed propaganda
(a) To proceed to exercise control and seizure of printed propaganda of a subversive nature coming from abroad. For this purpose, to establish a postal control of printed matter entering or leaving a country and to exercise stricter vigilance over travelers.
(b) With regard to the propaganda that is introduced through the diplomatic and consular missions of the countries of the Sino-Soviet bloc and Cuba, measures should be taken to prevent this practice from being continued.
(c) Circulation of any publication containing subversive propaganda of a Communist nature should be prohibited.
(d) The interested governments should request the countries that still maintain diplomatic relations with the countries of the SinoSoviet bloc and Cuba to exercise the necessary control in order to prevent the propaganda that enters through Communist embassies from being sent to their territory.
7. Motion pictures and television
(a) To prohibit the showing of films produced in the countries of the Communist bloc and those others produced in other countries which, in the judgment of the governments, favor Communist propaganda.
(b) To exercise control over television programs that favor Communist propaganda.
IV. TRANSFER OF FUNDS TO THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS FOR SUBVERSIVE PURPOSES
A. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
It is an indisputable fact that Communist or pro-Communist groups in the American countries must necessarily have a large amount of money to carry on their subversive activities.
If it is considered that these groups, in addition to being a minority in their respective countries, are mainly composed of individuals of limited economic resources, it may be concluded that they do not have the means for financing themselves. Since it is public knowledge that they are actually spending large sums of money every year, it is not difficult to understand that a large portion of their expenditures are financed from abroad.
Among the aspects to be mentioned that best support this assertion, the following may be cited:
Communist parties have a large quantity of equipment and material available to print their propaganda;
Their prominent leaders, accompanied by some delegations, make frequent trips to Cuba, the Soviet Union, China, and other Communist countries, spending large sums of money in travel and living expenses;
Many Communist leaders, although they have no known means of work, are able to live without financial worries;
The American Communist parties finance, with no major problems, the expenses arising from the manifold activities they carry out, both inside and outside their respective countries.
Financial aid for the subversive purposes of communism is very difficult to verify, owing to the secretive and disguised manner in which it is practiced. Nevertheless, according to information supplied by some American countries and news that has appeared in news organs of proved seriousness it can be affirmed that it is the present Cuban Government that is responsible for providing, directly or indirectly, a large portion of the financial support received by the Communist parties in the other American Republics.
Cuba, when the Castro-Communist government was first installed in Havana, gave its moral, material, and financial support to a series of invasions, organized within its territory, into different countries in the Caribbean region. Since 1959 this form of activity was suspended through fear that these flagrant acts of intervention would give rise to a collective inter-American action. This did not mean that Castro-Communist interference in the affairs of the Americas had ceased to exist; on the contrary, her subversive activity was intensified in many other ways, among them, through abundant and continual financial aid.
B. OBTAINING OF FUNDS
The American Communist parties, in order to obtain the necessary funds for their subversive purposes, have two main sources available: the collection of funds in their respective countries and the receipt of funds coming from abroad.
1. Funds collected in each country
They are obtained through the following procedures:
(a) Organization of periodic campaigns by the party and collateral and front organizations to collect funds by means of such social activities as banquets, balls, bazaars, festivals, and the like.
(b) Through compulsory contributions from all the members of the party and sympathizers.
(c) Sales of all kinds of Communist publications, printed especially for this purpose in clandestine printing offices, and compulsory subscriptions to newspapers, periodicals, or weeklies published by the party.
(d) Receipt of profits derived from artistic, cultural, and athletic events for the general public, utilizing national or foreign groups hired for this purpose.
(e) Contraband in general, particularly in narcotics.
(f) In those countries that still maintain diplomatic relations with the Communist countries, the diplomatic representatives of the latter take advantage of the exemptions they enjoy to bring in articles that are later sold to national consumers.
(g) Organization and operation of different kinds of commercial entitles.
2. Funds received from abroad
These funds constitute the major part of the income of the Communist parties. The instrument most frequently used to receive and distribute such funds is the Communist diplomatic mission in those countries with which their countries maintain relations. They receive the quantities assigned to the national Communist groups and those of the other countries, and from their respective headquarters they distribute financial aid to the addressees through their agents, the postal service, and the banks.
In some cases the remittances are made in person. For example, a Communist agent of country A travels to Cuba and receives a certain amount of money in cash. On his way back through country B, he converts the money received, either into a bank draft to be sent by mail to a given addressee or into travelers' checks to be carried personally or by other agents.
Mention should also be made here of transfers of funds intended for imaginary or real business concerns, which are utilized in subversive Communist activity once they have been brought into the country.
The movement of funds from Communist countries to the American Republics for use in subversive activities is extremely difficult to control, not only because of the different methods used to carry it out, but owing to the facilities that exist for making transfers of money.
There is complete evidence that this transfer of funds is being carried out intensively from Cuba and from other countries of the Communist bloc to the American Republics.
As long as there are diplomatic relations between some of the American countries and the Communist nations, particularly Cuba, and as long as the movement of travelers to and from the latter country is permitted, the transfer of funds for subversive purposes will continue to be even more difficult to control.
In addition to the recommendations already given in the chapter about Cuba as a base for subversion in the Americas, particularly with reference to travel control, the Committee presents to the Council's Committee, for consideration, the following measures that might control the transfer of funds to a certain degree:
1. To inspect Communist entities and persons, as well as Communist suspects, in the different countries in order to determine the origin of the funds that permit them to develop Communist subversive activities.
2. To control contraband, particularly of narcotics, which, as is known, is one of the most effective means employed by communism to obtain funds.
3. To consider the possibility that experts in the matter, within the respective legal systems of the American countries, might study the means that would make it possible to control the entry of money or securities that it is believed are intended to serve the ends of Communist subversion.
4. To exercise strict control over the national procedures used by Communists to obtain funds, as pointed out in this chapter.
With respect to the effectiveness of these measures, it is worth repeating the comment that, as long as there are diplomatic relations between the American Republics and the countries of the Communist bloc, particularly Cuba, these countries will continue to avail themselves, as they have done up to now, of their diplomatic representations to introduce funds into the American countries:, intended for Communist subversion.
V. GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS
In the light of the analysis made in this study, the Special Consultative Committee on Security makes the following general recommendations:
1. To repeat in full the recommendations contained in its initial general report of April 30, 1962. In this respect, the Committee considers it advisable that the Council of the Organization of American States, pursuant to Resolution II.1 of the eighth meeting of consultation, urge the governments of the member states to implement the recommendations that have been adopted repeatedly since 1948 at the different inter-American conferences and meetings of consultation; and, in accordance with their constitutional precepts, to bring up to date and supplement their legislation so as to make the various recommendations set forth in the preceding chapters of this study applicable, provided they are adopted.
2. That the American governments be asked to devote particular attention to their intelligence services, creating or improving them, in order that they may have the means that will enable them to plan, coordinate, and carry out effective action against Communist subversion; and, likewise, to organize, equip, and train their security forces so that they may be in proper condition to repress the subversive activities of international communism.
3. Along the same lines, and in order to establish real and effective collaboration among the services or organizations in charge of action against Communist subversion in the different American countries, it is considered advisable to recommend that a specialized conference be held that will be attended by the heads of the security and intelligence services or organizations. The Special Consultative Committee on Security could at the proper time prepare the draft agenda for such meeting.
4. That the American governments be urged to provide the Special Consultative Committee on Security with all the information on subversive acts that take place in their respective countries, in order that the Committee may give appropriate and timely advice when it is so requested.
VI. FINAL CONSIDERATION
Since the time of its initial general report, the Committee has observed that the establishment of a beachhead on American territory, achieved by the Communist offensive, "poses a threat of the utmost gravity to the security of the hemisphere." The events that have taken place since that time, particularly the military strengthening of Cuba by the Soviet Union, by greatly increasing the capacity of the Cuban Government to send arms into neighboring countries and to intensify other subversive activities, render the threat to hemispheric security much more serious, a threat that assumes an urgent character with respect to the security of the countries of the Caribbean region. This has become evident, sometimes in a dramatic manner, in the recent wave of terrorism, sabotage, and other subversive activities that Castro communism has unleashed in some of the Latin American countries.
Without wishing to detract importance from the measures that have been recommended during the course of this study, the Committee believes that present circumstances demand that such measures be supplemented with others of greater scope. The degree of development attained by the political-military apparatus that has been established in Cuba is rendering the system of security against subversion increasingly inadequate and ineffective, based solely on the isolated measures that each country might adopt. Holding this conviction, the Committee has wished to assume responsibility for expressing it, in view of the present state of events, in order that the American governments may effectively confront the subversive action of Castro communism.
Under these circumstances, the Committee believes that the situation justifies consideration by the American governments in accordance with the pertinent provisions of the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance. In the opinion of the Committee, recent events, particularly the repeated statements by the principal Cuban leaders of their intention to subvert the American governments by violence, constitute a situation of such gravity and urgency that it can be adequately and effectively dealt with only by adopting the measures provided for in the treaty.
In this respect, it is also pertinent to recall the urgent recommendation made by the eighth meeting of consultation to the governments of the member states "to take those steps that they may consider appropriate for their individual or collective self-defense, and to cooperate, as may be necessary or desirable, to strengthen their capacity to counteract threats or acts of aggression, subversion, or other dangers to peace and security resulting from the continued intervention in this hemisphere of Sino-Soviet powers, in accordance with the obligations established in treaties and agreements such as the Charter of the Organization of American States and the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance." To this effect, the Committee believes that because of the increasing gravity of the subversive threat posed by Castro communism, recourse to such measures of individual and collective self-defense as are considered necessary to remove it, may not be postponed.
MANUEL CAMPOS JIMÉNEZ,
Chairman of the Committee
JULIO CÉSAR DOIG SÁNCHEZ,
Vice Chairman of the Committee
PAUL C. DANIELS.
JOAQUIM CANUTO MENDES DE ALMEIDA
CARLOS MARIA LUNA.
JULIO CÉSAR VADORA ROZIER
FEBRUARY 8, 1963.
1. Report of the Inter-American Peace Committee to the Eighth Meetlog of Consultation of Ministers of Foreign Affairs, January l962, Punta del Este, Uruguay, Document OEA/ Ser.L/III, CIP/1/62.