Porfirio Diaz is reelected president of Mexico, a post he has held almost continuously since 1876. His main political rival,
Francisco I. Madero, is in jail, along with 60,000 other supporters. Madero, released on bail eleven days later, flees to San
Francisco Madero returns to Mexico from Texas, an event still commemorated in Mexico.
Francisco I. Madero, leader of the rebellion against President Porfirio Diaz, holds a meeting at Bustillos.
City of Juarez falls to Madero's forces, thanks largely to the aggressiveness (and insubordination) of Francisco ("Pancho")
Villa and Pascual Orozco.
Villa and Orozco break with Madero over his clemency to General Navarro, whom they took prisoner at Juarez. Villa returns
to his wife at San Andres, Chihuahua.
Porfirio Diaz resigns as president, is escorted to Veracruz, departs for exile in Paris. Madero refuses to take office until
elected. Vice President Francisco de La Barra is installed as interim president.
Madero is elected president, inaugurated in November.
Threatened by Orozco, Villa flees from Chihuahua after refusing to join in rebellion against Madero. Villa sets about raising his
Villa takes the city of Parral from the Orozco rebels.
Orozco retakes Parral from Villa, who melts into the mountains and joins Victoriano Huerta, Madero's field commander, at
Villa, sentenced to be shot for insubordination by Huerta, is spared by Madero's order at the last moment and sent to Santiago
Tlatelolco prison, in Mexico City.
Woodrow Wilson elected president of the United States.
Villa escapes prison, where he has learned of plots hatched by Generals Bernardo Reyes and Felix Diaz, but has refused to
join them. Villa crosses Rio Grande into El Paso on January 3, 1913.
"Ten Tragic Days." Rebellion of Bernardo Reyes, Felix Diaz, and Victoriano Huerta. Huerta arrests Madero on February 18
and assumes power.
President Madero and Vice President Pino Suarez are murdered outside Lecumberri prison, Mexico City.
Inauguration of Woodrow Wilson as president of the United States.
Villa returns to Mexico after learning of Madero's assassination; gathers army on way to San Andres; sends message of
defiance to governor of Chihuahua.
Venustiano Carranza draws up Plan of Guadalupe, in which he declares himself "First Chief of the Constitutionalist Army,"
claiming to be the rightful successor to Madero.
President Wilson sends William Bayard Hale to Mexico on a fact-finding mission. Hale sends reports throughout June.
President Wilson sends Governor John Lind to Mexico as an unofficial agent. Lind, rebuffed by Huerta, spends some months
Villa's new army routs forces under Felix Terrazas at San Andres, taking three trains and other booty.
Woodrow Wilson declares policy of "watchful waiting" before a joint session of Congress. Start of the ''honeymoon'' between
Mexico and the United States.
Villa's Division of the North captures Torreón. Villa becomes a civil governor for the first time.
Huerta's second coup. Arrest and imprisonment of eighty-five Mexican congressmen. Huerta is elected president in an election
so obviously rigged as to be nullified and deferred for nine months.
Carranza establishes a provisional government at Hermosillo, in Sonora.
Wilson's "Circular Note," which includes an obvious implied threat to remove Huerta.
Villa captures Juarez, taking 3,000 prisoners.
Wilson sends William Hale to Nogales, Mexico, for a conference with Carranza, which turns out disastrously. Hale returns to
the U.S. side on November 19. Wilson levies an arms embargo against Carranza.
Villa defeats General Jose Ines Salvador at Tierra Blanca.
Chihuahua City falls to Villa's Division of the North.
Villa defeats Salvador Mercado at Ojinaga, across from Presidio, Texas, on the Rio Grande. Mercado and his army escape to
the Texas side of the river. John J. Pershing comes to the Mexican side to call on Villa.
President Wilson lifts the embargo of arms against Carranza.
The Benton affair, in which Villa murders the British subject William H. Benton. Villa claims "self-defense," but nobody
Villa and Carranza fall out over plans for the future. Villa gives in and attacks Saltillo, at Carranza’s insistence. Villa then
learns that Carranza has sent another general to take Zacatecas, Villa's own objective.
A Huertista general at Tampico arrests crewmen from the US Dolphin. U.S. demands for a public display of contrition create
an international crisis.
Wilson asks Congress for extraordinary military powers as a result of the Tampico incident.
The German ship Ypiranga arrives off Veracruz. Admiral Frank Fletcher lands sailors and marines at Veracruz the next day.
Meeting between Wilson and his cabinet. Secretary of War Lindley M. Garrison urges that the U.S. Army push on to Mexico
City. Argentina, Brazil, and Chile offer to mediate between the United States and Mexico the next day.
Fifth Infantry Brigade, under Brigadier General Frederick Funston, relieves marine garrison at Veracruz.
May 20-July 2
U.S. and Mexican diplomats meet at Niagara Falls, Canada, under ABC sponsorship. As a result, Wilson asks Carranza to
hold up the march on Mexico City. Carranza refuses on June 16.
Villa takes Zacatecas, though without Carranza's approval. Carranza responds by with-holding supplies of ammunition and
coal from Villa.
Alvaro Obregón, military commander under Carranza, captures Guadalajara.
Huerta resigns as provisional president and flees to Spain.
Obregón occupies Mexico City on behalf of the Constitutionalists. Carranza soon follows.
Woodrow Wilson sends Paul Fuller to visit Villa at Santa Rosalia and urges him to establish a government and then retire. Villa
Fuller confers with Carranza in Mexico City. Carranza promises to cooperate.
Obregón, now minister of war in Mexico City, visits Villa in Chihuahua. Together they visit Pershing in Fort Bliss, Texas, and
Maytorena in Nogales.
Villa declares war on Carranza.
Oct. 12-Nov. 12
Convention at Aguascaliente. General Eulalio Gutierrez is elected president.
U.S. Fifth Infantry Brigade debarks at Veracruz. Generals Alvaro Obregón and Pablo Gonzalez join the deposed Carranza,
who occupies Veracruz as his capital. Villa and Emiliano Zapata occupy Mexico City.
Carranza issues a decree revising the Plan of Guadalupe to include land reform, electoral reform, workers' rights.
Villa meets with U.S. General Hugh S. Scott and sells out Governor Maytorena in the Sonora civil war.
Obregón begins a campaign against Villa's forces.
Obregón defeats Villa in two battles at Celaya, near Queretaro.
Wilson warns Mexico, threatening intervention.
Villa is defeated at León and takes refuge in Chihuahua.
The United States and six Latin American nations recognize the Carranza government.
Villa's army is decimated by Carrancista forces under Plutarco Elias Calles in a two-day battle at Agua Prieta, opposite
Douglas, Arizona. Later word that the U.S. had assisted Calles infuriates Villa. Agua Prieta is soon followed by a similar defeat
at Hermosillo, Sonora.
Pascual Orozco, jumping bail in El Paso, is killed by Texas Rangers near Presidio, Texas. Huerta dies in El Paso.
Villa raids a train, running from Chihuahua City to the Cusi mines, at Santa Isabel, Chihuahua. Villa's men kill sixteen of the
seventeen Americans aboard.
Villista raid on Columbus, New Mexico, killing nineteen Americans.
Brigadier General John J. Pershing, on President Wilson's order, crosses the Mexican border at Columbus and Culberson's
Ranch, pursuing Villa.
Protocol signed between Washington and Carranza, interpreted by Wilson as allowing the Punitive Expedition into Mexico.
Pershing's Punitive Expedition, now 6,675 men strong, reaches over three hundred miles into Mexico.
Skirmish between U.S. cavalry and Carrancistas at Parral, over five hundred road miles into Mexican territory. End of
Pershing's pursuit of Villa.
Long and bitter note from Carranza to Wilson.
Wilson calls up the National Guard, eventually 100,000 men.
Battle of Carrizal, in which Captain Charles T. Boyd, Lieutenant Henry R. Adair, and Mexican General Felix G. G6mez are
killed. Heavy losses on both sides. Twenty-three Americans are taken prisoner by the Carrancistas
Carranza proposes Mexican-U.S. talks.
U.S.-Mexican meetings begin in New London. Later shifted to Philadelphia and Atlantic City. A protocol is signed November
Constitutional convention meets at Queretaro.
Carranza rejects protocol of November 24 between the United States and Mexico.
Beginning of the withdrawal of the Punitive Expedition.
Completion of the radical new Mexican constitution.
Last of the Punitive Expedition crosses the Rio Grande into the United States.
Venustiano Carranza is elected president.
President Woodrow Wilson establishes full diplomatic relations with the new Carranza government by sending Henry P.
Fletcher as ambassador to Mexico.
The United States declares war on imperial Germany.
Carranza is inaugurated as president of Mexico.
Emiliano Zapata is assassinated at Chinameca on orders of Carranza.
Alvaro Obregón declares himself a candidate for the presidency in the election to be held in 1920. Carranza, in early
September, endorses his own candidate, Ignacio Bonillas.
Carranza summons Obregón to Mexico City to face trumped-up charges. Obregón escapes with his life through the aid of
Obregón manifesto declaring rebellion against Carranza.
Carranza flees Mexico City. Abandons train on May 14
Carranza is assassinated in the village of Tlaxcalantongo, Puebla.
Adolfo de la Huerta is inaugurated provisional president.
Obregón is elected president, inaugurated on November 30.
Assassination of Pancho Villa and his bodyguards in Parral. His executioners are never punished.