| José Joaquín
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President of Mexico (1844–45, 1848–51). Born in
Jalapa, Veracruz, in April 1792. Rising to power after the collapse of
Santa Anna’s second presidential administration, he incurred the disfavor
of ultraconservatives by attempting to avoid war with the United States;
a revolution led by Paredes y Arrillaga resulted in his resignation. After
the war he again held the presidency and attempted to reform the government,
but his administration was hampered by insurrections of native peoples,
political unrest, and a staggering national debt. He was succeeded by Mariano
Arista. Died in poverty at his home in Tacubaya on February 10, 1854.
See biography by Thomas Ewing Cotner, The Military and Political Career of Jose Joaquin de Herrera, 1792-1854. (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1949, repr. 1969).