Free Blacks in Antebellum America

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Proceedings of the National Emigration Convention of Colored People, 1854
Brown, William Wells. The Black Man: His Antecedents, His Genius, and His Achievements. (1863)
[Croly, David G.] Miscegenation: The Theory of the Blending of the Races, Applied to the American White Man and Negro (1864)
Ponton, M. M. Life and Times of Henry M. Turner (1917)

Free Blacks in 1790 Philadelphia Federal Census
Free Blacks in 1800 Prince Georges County, MD
Mary Brayboy, 1850 South Carolina, Chesterfield District census
Jacob Brayboy, 1880 South Carolina, Sumter
Prince Brayboy, 1940 South Carolina, Florence County

Mulatto women in New Orleans receive 20 lashes for vulgar language (Natchez Gazette, Oct. 24, 1826)
Jose Montes and Laurence Antonio, 10 lashes for petit larceny in Mobile (New Orleans Louisiana Advertiser, April 27, 1827)
The Negroes (Arkansas Gazette, Nov. 23, 1831)
Infamous Outrage By a Negro, Boston Herald, August 11, 1851, 2

Silcox, Harry C. The Black "Better Class" Political Dilemma: Philadelphia Prototype Isaiah C. Wears, The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Jan. 1989

Negro Citizenship, Baton Rouge Daily Advocate, April 28, 1857, 2
Can Negroes Preempt Land, N. Y. Tribune, July 31, 1857, 3
A War Upon the Negroes in Indiana, N. Y. Tribune, July 31, 1857, 3
The Petition in Pennsylvania to Exclude Negro Imigration into that State, Plain Dealer (Cleveland), March 25, 1863, 2
Barbarism in Illinois, Liberator (Boston), March 27, 1863, p. 52

Anna Kingsley Plantation, Florida
William "April" Ellison: A Black Entrepreneur and Slave Owner in Sumter, S.C. (1790-1861)
Free Negro Owners of Slaves in the United States in 1830 (The Journal of Negro History, Jan. 1924)

ALLEN, RICHARD  (February 14, 1760 – March 26, 1831)

Richard Allen marriage 1801
Trinidad, Emancipator (NY), Sept. 26, 1839, 87
Richard Allen Cultural Center and Museum

ATTUCKS, CRISPUS (c. 1723 – March 5, 1770)

Crispus Attucks: revolutionary, Milwaukee Star, July 4, 1970, 1

BANNEKER, BENJAMIN (November 9, 1731 – October 9, 1806)

Henry E. Baker. Benjamin Banneker, the Negro Mathematician and Astronomer. The Journal of Negro History, Apr., 1918
Silvio A. Bedini. Benjamin Banneker and the Survey of the District of Columbia, 1791. Records of the Columbia Historical Society, Washington, D.C., Vol. 69/70 (1969/1970)
Ron Eglash. The African Heritage of Benjamin Banneker. Social Studies of Science, Apr., 1997
Benjamin Banneker: America's First Black Astronomer. The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, Summer, 1996

BECKWOURTH, JAMES (April 6, 1798–October 29, 1866)

"Opulent Men of Color," Portage Wisconsin State Register, May 17, 1890
"Letter from Los Angeles," San Francisco Daily Evening Bulletin, February 12, 1859
"Letter from Pike's Peak," Freedom's Champion (Atchison, Kansas), July 14, 1860
Review of the Life and Adventures of James P. Beckwourth, The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Dec., 1931
Review of the Life and Adventures of James P. Beckwourth, The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Apr., 1932
Review of the Life and Adventures of James P. Beckwourth, California Historical Quarterly, Spring, 1973
Review of the Life and Adventures of James P. Beckwourth, Montana: The Magazine of Western History, Summer, 1973
Review of the Life and Adventures of James P. Beckwourth, Arizona and the West, Autumn, 1973
Review of the Life and Adventures of James P. Beckwourth, Pacific Historical Review, Nov., 1973

BELL, PHILIP ALEXANDER (1808-April 25, 1889)

Philip Alexander Bell: The Black Past Remembered
Philip A. Bell 1850 New York City 1850 census
Frederick Douglass letter to Philip A. Bell, Elevator (San Francisco), June 5, 1868, 2
Philip A. Bell San Francisco 1880 census
Death of Philip A. Bell, San Francisco Bulletin, April 27, 1889, p. 4

BROWN, WILLIAM WELLS (November 6, 1814 – November 6, 1884)

William Wells Brown, Cambridge, Mass. 1870 census
William Wells Brown, Boston, Mass. 1880 census
William Wells Brown obituary, Springfield Republican (MA), Nov. 9, 1884, 4
William Wells Brown obituary, Boston Daily Advertiser, Nov. 8, 1884, 8


Jabez Campbell 1850 census
Jabez Campbell 1860 census
Jabez Campbell 1870 census
Jabez Campbell 1880 census

CAMPBELL, TUNIS GULICK  (April 1, 1812 – December 4, 1891)

Sufferings of the Rev. T. G. Campbell and His Family, in Georgia (1877)
Tunis G. Campbell, Newport, R.I. 1850 census
Organization of the Labor on the Sea Islands, Letter of the Secretary of War, 39th Congress, 2d Session, Senate Ex. Doc. 6, Jan. 21, 1867
Tunis G. Campbell Georgia 1870 census
Campbell's Negro Gang Arming in McIntosh County and Causing Great Excitement,New York Herald, January 14, 1872, 5
A Riotous Mob Attacks a Jail, Philadelphia Inquirer, May 3, 1875, 8
Tunis Campbell--His History, Career and Downfall, Macon Weekly Telegraph, May 18, 1875, 1
The Governor Refuses to Pardon Tunis G. Campbell, Sr. Savannah Tribune, May 20, 1876, 1
Tunis G. Campbell Washington, D.C. 1880 census
Tunis G. Campbell, military pension, 1891
Death of Rev. T. G. Campbell, New York Age, Dec. 12, 1891, 4
A Noted Race Champion Dies, Freeman (Indianapolis-IN) Dec. 26, 1891, 3
How a Negro Justice Nearly Brought on International Trouble, Grand Forks Herald (ND), July 4, 1897, 6
Freedom's Shore: Tunis Campbell and the Georgia Freedmen (Review) The Journal of American History, Sept. 1987
Freedom's Shore: Tunis Campbell and the Georgia Freedmen (Review) The Journal of Southern History, Feb. 1988

CARDOZO, FRANCIS LEWIS (Jan. 1, 1836-July 22, 1903)

State ex rel. McKinlay vs. Cardozo, State Treasurer, May 1876
Misuse of Public Funds, New York Herald, July 22, 1877, 9
Senteces Pronounced on Cardozo, Smalls and Carpenter, New York Herald, Nov. 27, 1877, 7
Carolina Corruption. More Samples of the Official Robbery of the Palmetto State New York Herald, March 5, 1878, 7
F. L. Cardozo's Fame Here and Elsewhere, The State (Columbia, SC), March 18, 1906, 15

CARDOZO, THOMAS WITHMARSH (Dec. 19, 1838-April 13, 1881)

Pious Frauds.--A Wolf in Sheep's Clothing. Charleston Courier, Feb. 2, 1867, 1
Brock, Euline W. Thomas W. Cardozo: Fallible Black Reconstruction Leader, The Journal of Southern History, May, 1981, pp. 183-206
Unsung Schoolmaster and Politician (1987)

Pierre L. Carmouche 1900 Census
Pierre L. Carmouche 1920 Census

Joaquin (Wakin) Delery, Cuban fisherman in Louisiana, 1850 census
A. Duhart, Cuban gunsmith, New Orleans, 1850 census
A. Duhart, Cuban gunsmith and lightning-rod maker, New Orleans, 1851 city directory


William H. Day, Minister, Passionate Abolitionist, and College Founder
William Howard Day 1870 census
William Howard Day 1900 census

DELANY, MARTIN ROBERT (May 6, 1812 – January 24, 1885)

A Brief Biography of Martin A. Delany
Martin Delany 1850 Pittsburgh census
Martin R. Delany: His Editorial Career, Elevator (San Francisco), Nov. 6, 1868, 1
Martin Delany 1861 Chatham, Canada, census
Martin Delany 1877 Charleston, SC, City Directory
Martin Delany 1878 Charleston, SC, City Directory
Martin Delany 1879 Charleston, SC, City Directory
Martin Delany 1880 Charleston, SC census
Catharine Delany 1880 Ohio census
Martin Delany 1890 widow's pension

Jeremie and Henriette Desdunes 1880 census
Rodolphe Lucien Desdunes 1880 census
Rodolphe Lucien Desdunes 1896 passport
Rodolphe Lucien Desdunes 1920 census

Jacob Dobson 1860 census
Jacob Dobson 1880 census

Douglas's Battery at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas History, Winter 2000.
Captain, Co. D, Independent Battery, USCT, Muster-in and Descriptive Roll, Dec. 23, 1864
Captain, Co. D, Independent Battery, USCT, Return, March 10, 1865

George T. Downing 1860 census
George T. Downing 1900 census

GARNET, HENRY HIGHLAND (December 23, 1815 – February 13, 1882)

Henry Highland Garnet obituary, New York Herald, March 11, 1882, 5
Henry Highland Garnet passport, Aug. 24, 1861
Henry Highland Garnet Freedman's Bank account, 1870
Henry Highland Garnet New York City 1870 census


Charlotte Forten, Warminster, PA 1850 census
Charlotte Forten, Luzerne, PA 1860 census
Charlotte Forten, 1870 Boston Directory
Charlotten Forten, 1874 Washington, DC Directory
Charlotten Forten, 1879 Washington, DC Directory
Charlotte Forten, Washington, DC 1880 census
Charlotte Forten, Washington, DC 1910 census

Thomas Hamilton 1850 census
Thomas Hamilton 1860 census

Edmonia Highgate, Albany, NY, 1850 census
Edmonia Highgate, Syracuse, NY, 1860 census
Freedmen's Moral Reform Society, Mobile Register, Aug. 13, 1869, 1
Sad Death of a Talented Lady, St. Albans Messenger (VT), Oct. 28, 1870, 2
Obituary, Morning Republican (Little-Rock, AR), Nov. 3, 1870, 4
Find A Grave, Oakwood Cemetery, Syracuse, NY

New Orleans City Directory 1869
Bravery of Colored Troops, Elevator (San Francisco), March 18, 1870, 1
New Orleans Federal census 1870
New Orleans City Directory 1871
Proceedings of the Colored Convention--Election of Delegates, Weekly Louisianian (New Orleans), March 7, 1872, 2
Freedman's Bank Account, Aug. 30, 1873
New Orleans City Directory 1874
Excitement on Marais Street, Times-Picayune (New Orleans), Aug. 18, 1875, 1

Benjamin Johnson 1850 census
Benjamin Johnson 1860 census
Benjamin Johnson 1863 draft substitute
Benjamin Johnson 1870 census

JONES, JOHN (1817-May 31,1879)

The Black Past
John Jones 1860 Chicago census
John Jones 1870 Chicago census


John M. Langston Dead, The State (Columbia, SC), Nov. 16, 1897, 1

LYNCH, JAMES D. (1839 – DEC. 18, 1872)

Biography in
"The Idol of the Negroes"
Letter to the editor of the "Anglo-African", July 9, 1864
James D. Lynch, 1870 Jackson, Miss. census


Obituary: The Rev. J. Sella Martin, Evening-Post (NY) Aug. 14, 1876, 2
Obituary: The Rev. J. Sella Martin, NY Herald-Tribune, Aug. 15, 1876, 5
Fatality of Negro Politicians, Columbian Register (New Haven-CT), Aug. 26, 1876, 2

MENARD, JOHN WILLIS (April 3, 1838 – October 8, 1893)

John Menard passport application, April 2, 1860
John Menard New Orleans directory 1870
John Menard 1880 census

MORRIS, ROBERT (1823-1882)

Robert Morris 1850 census
Robert Morris 1860 census
Robert Morris 1870 census
Robert Morris 1880 census
Robert Morris 1882 death record

Obituary, Charleston Mercury, January 17, 1865, 2

William Parham Cincinnati City Directoy 1864
William Parham 1870 census
William Parham 1880 census
William Parham 1900 census

POWELL JR, WILLIAM PENTECOST (Dec. 12, 1835, Selma-Nov. 6, 1915, Willis, TX)

William P. Powell, Jr.: Doctor and Soldier
Black Abolitionist Archive (William Powell, Sr.)
Boarding House for Seamen The Liberator (Boston), Dec. 18, 1840, p. 204
William P. Powell Jr. 1863 military draft registration, Washington, D.C.
William P. Powell Jr. 1900 census
William P. Powell Jr. 1910 census
William P. Powell Jr. 1915 death certificate


Robert Purvis 1870 census
Robert Purvis 1880 census
Anecdotes of Public Men, San Francisco Elevator, July 20, 1872, 1
Commissioner of the Freedman's Savings and Trust Company
The Freedman's Bank in Bankruptcy, Springfield Republican (MA), July 3, 1874, 4
Robert Purvis Dead, Philadelphia Inquirer, April 16, 1898, 12

RANDOLPH, PASCHAL BEVERLY (October 8, 1825 – July 29, 1875)

Arrived in New York from Europe and Africa, Daily Illinois State Register (Springfield, IL), Sept. 20, 1855, 2
Spiritualism!Springfield Republican (Springfield, MA) April 4, 1856, 3
A Concrete Man, Plain Dealer (Cleveland, OH) May 27, 1856, 2
Further Correction and Explanation, Liberator (Boston), Dec. 10, 1858, 199
A Final Correction, Liberator (Boston), Dec. 31, 1858, 211
Letter from Gerrit Smith, Liberator (Boston), Dec. 31, 1858, 211
Dr. P. B. Randolph, Indian Physician, Boston Herald, Aug. 24, 1860, 1
Raised Indian Regiment with the rank of colonel, Trenton State Gazette, May 18, 1861, 2
In San Francisco on his way to China, Springfield Republican (MA), Nov. 30, 1861, 1
The Fremont Legion--Negro Convention, Daily National Intelligencer, July 27, 1863, 2
The Colored Soldiers, Liberator (Boston), Sept. 4, 1863, 143
Lloyd Garrison School--Colored, Liberator (Boston), Nov. 10, 1865, 179
In Washington for an interview with the President, Albany Evening Journal, July20, 1866, 2
Another Donation from the President, Daily National Intelligencer, Aug. 3, 1866, 2
Collecting funds for a high-grade school in New Orleans, NY Herald Tribune, Aug. 8, 1866, 4
Letter to the N.Y. Tribune denouncing racism in New Orleans, Portsmouth Journal of Literature and Politics, Aug. 11, 1866, 2
Personal, Vermont Phoenix (Brattleboro, VT), Aug. 24, 1866, 2
Denounced President Johnson for not contributing $200, Flake's-Bulletin (Galveston, TX), Sept. 22, 1866, 4
The Great Show, Arkansas Weekly Gazette (Little-Rock), Oct. 9, 1866, 2
Lecture in the Boston Theatre, Boston Journal, January 25, 1867, 2
The Lecture at Huntington Hall, Lowell Daily Citizen and News (MA), January 31, 1867, 2
For Man, For Woman advertisement, Boston Herald, July 23, 1867, 1
Consulting Clairvoyant, Boston Herald, July 24, 1867, 1
Colonize in Virginia, Boston Herald, March 24, 1869, 2
Love at Last! advertisement, Lowell Daily Citizen and News, Nov. 8, 1870, 1
P. B. Randolph at the Opera House, Providence Evening Press (Providence, RI) June 26, 1871, 3
Self-Poisoning, Lowell Daily Citizen and News (MA), Oct. 22, 1872, 2
A narrow escape from death by poisoning, Elevator (San Francisco), Nov. 9, 1872, 3
Oration at Dashaway Hall, San Francisco Bulletin, Dec. 19, 1874, 2
Suicide of a Well Know Spiritualist, Wheeling Register, July 30, 1875, 1

John S. Rock 1850 census
John S. Rock 1860 census
John S. Rock 1863 military draft registration

Jean Baptiste Roudanez New Orleans directory 1867 census
Jean Baptiste Roudanez New Orleans 1880 census

RUBY, GEORGE THOMPSON  (1841–Oct. 31, 1882)

The Handbook of Texas Online
Legislative Reference Library of Texas
The 1860s: George T. Ruby
African American Leader

SMITH, JAMES McCLUNE (April 18, 1813–November 17, 1865)

James McClune Smith 1850 census
Anti-Slavery Convention, Philadelphia Public Ledger, June 28, 1855, 3
Introduction to My Bondage and My Freedom by Frederick Douglass, Cayuga Chief (Auburn, NY), Aug. 21, 1855, 2
Dr. James McCune Smith, Frederick Douglass' Paper, Jan. 28, 1859, 2
James McClune Smith 1860 census
Death of Dr. J. McClune Smith, NY Evening Post, Nov. 17, 1865, 4

Samuel H. Smothers 1860 census
Samuel H. Smothers 1863 military draft registration

STILL, WILLIAM (October 7, 1821 – July 14, 1902)

TURNER, HENRY McNEAL (February 1, 1834–May 8, 1915)

Life and Times of Henry M. Turner (1917)
Henry M. Turner, Macon, Ga., 1870 census
Henry M. Turner, Washington, DC, 1880 census
Henry M. Turner passport, Sept. 30, 1891
Henry M. Turner passport, Feb. 9, 1898
Henry M. Turner, Atlanta, Ga., 1900 census
Henry M. Turner, Atlanta, Ga., 1910 census
Henry M. Turner, death certificate, Windsor, Canada, May 8, 1915
Bishop Turner's Funeral Impressive, Savannah Tribune, May 22, 1915, 1

Silcox, Harry C. The Black "Better Class" Political Dilemma: Philadelphia Prototype Isaiah C. Wears, The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Jan. 1989
Isaiah Wears Philadelphia 1870 census
Isaiah Wears Philadelphia 1870 city directory
Isaiah Wears Philadelphia 1873 city directory
Isaiah Wears Philadelphia 1875 city directory
Isaiah Wears Philadelphia 1880 census


Elisha Weaver 1870 census