Gulf Between the Rich and the Poor Grows in Argentina
By Jon Jeter
Washington Post Foreign Service
BUENOS AIRES -- Claudio Gerosa has done well for himself. His consulting
business all but sprouted wings in the 1990s, growing by 500 percent as
he and his
partners helped foreign businessmen sell soft drinks, cars, televisions and other merchandise. Gerosa's income quadrupled. He stashed some but spent gobs more:
He took the family to Disney World, went through eight cars in 10 years and bought a new home.
"I'm not the kind of guy who hides his money under his mattress," said Gerosa, a tanned and affable man. "I like to spend it."
Enrique Saavedra, 44, is a year older than Gerosa and agonizingly poorer.
The past decade was not nearly as kind to him, as the deluge of better-made
goods into the country cost him not one factory job but two. Since 1999, he has made a living -- for lack of a better word, he says -- rummaging through garbage
for cardboard, cans and other recyclables to sell for a few pennies per pound. He says he earns about $50 a month. Even with the recession, Gerosa says that he
earns the equivalent of between $1,000 and $2,000 monthly, down from a peak of $5,000 in the 1990s, but still enough for a middle-class lifestyle.
"We live like animals now," said Saavedra, wiry as a bantamweight and
the father of a 9-year-old boy. "What I do to survive is what a stray dog
does to survive. I
was much better off 10, 11 years ago than I am today. It's like I'm living my life in reverse."
The differing fortunes of the two men provide a vivid illustration of
how Argentina's effort to plug into the global economy has split this comfortably
country in two: one well-off and hungry for more, the other wretchedly poor and hungry.
The gap in incomes between Argentina's richest and poorest families
is now more than 10 times what it was just 15 years ago. According to government
the wealthiest 10 percent of Argentina's population earned nearly 178 percent more than the country's poorest 10 percent last year; in 1988, the margin was only
It is an epic transformation for a country that has not known pervasive
poverty since the Great Depression and has largely avoided the abyss that
divides rich from
poor in such other Latin American countries as Brazil, Mexico and Venezuela. And it is that growing division that largely fueled the backlash against former
president Carlos Menem, who abandoned his bid Wednesday to win a third presidential term. Opinion polls had showed Menem trailing Nestor Kirchner -- now
the president-elect -- by margins in the double digits. Under Argentine election law, Kirchner, who qualified for a runoff election by finishing second to Menem in a
field of five major candidates in the first round of balloting on April 27, won the presidency when Menem dropped out.
Just a decade ago, Argentina's middle class made up 80 percent of the
population, according to government statistics. The unemployment rate had
not eclipsed 5
percent since the 1940s, when Juan Peron's government expanded the rights of labor unions, extended government control over domestic industries and
modernized the welfare system.
In 1993, however, Argentina's unemployment rate surpassed the 5 percent
barrier for the first time in more than 60 years and has continued to climb.
estimate that a quarter of Argentina's workforce is jobless.
When Menem was elected in 1989, he sold virtually all of the country's
state-run industries, pegged the value of the peso to that of the dollar
to quell inflation and
borrowed heavily from international lenders such as the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. Those policies yielded a potent but short-lived growth spurt
in the 1990s, at once raising the ceiling on possibilities for the educated and well-connected while removing the floor underneath blue collar workers.
Argentina's economy contracted by 10.9 percent last year. That, coupled
with its default on nearly $141 billion in foreign debt payments and the
devaluation of the
peso by nearly 70 percent 16 months ago, has dried up foreign investment.