COLONEL CHARLES H. T. COLLIS.
Total Enrollment, 1,200 Officers and Men.
THE single company of Zouaves d'Afrique which Capt. Collis had recruited and led to war one year before, formed the basis as Company A of the Zouave regiment raised in Philadelphia in the summer of 1862, and which as the 114th Infantry left the city upon September 1st. At Washington this command was encamped at Fort Slocum, but soon afterward was assigned to the First Brigade, of the Third Corps, then commanded by Major-Gen. David B. Birney. The Zouaves received their "baptism of fire" on December 13th, when the division was rushed across the Rappahannock river, at Franklin's Crossing, below Fredericksburg, to the assistance of the Pennsylvania Reserves. The loss of the "114th" was twelve killed and seventeen wounded.* The Third Corps appeared in front of Fredericksburg again in January, 1863 (Burnside's "Mud March"), and a third time at the end of April, at the beginning of the Chancellorsville campaign, crossing the river, however, at United States Ford, about ten miles above the city. In the battle of May 3d the Zouaves fought with heroic persistence, finally retiring with a loss of one hundred and seventy-three killed and wounded. Of the twenty-seven officers present only three escaped death or wounds. Among those killed were Maj. Joseph S. Chandler and Capt. Frank A. Elliott of Co. F. The survivors returned after this bitter experience to camp at Falmouth.
The Third Corps reached Gettysburg after the close of the fighting upon July 1st, and was ordered to the left of the new line of battle, then being extended to the Round Tops. On the morning of the ad Gen. Sickles advanced a portion of his corps, including the "114th," to and across the Emmettsburg Pike to the right of the Peach Orchard, under the command of Lieut.-Col. Fred. F. Cavada. The Zouaves were a fair mark for the rebel pickets during the morning and for the artillery fire that preceded the infantry attack later in the day. The Confederates surged along the line like a billow sweeping a stormy beach, reaching the front of the "114th" when the Zouaves were forced backward, some, including Lieut.-Col. Cavada, in command, being captured. The regiment re-formed under Maj. Edward R. Bowen, took a new position in front of the Taneytown Road, but was not again heavily engaged in the course of the battle. The regimental losses were nine men killed, one officer and eighty-five men wounded, three officers and fifty-seven men captured or missing. Four of the wounded men subsequently died from their injuries. Those captured were near the Sherfy House.
Through the fall and winter of 1863-4 Maj. Bowen continued in command, Col. Collis being in command of the brigade. The regiment shared the fortunes of the Third Corps in its marching and fighting, including battles along the Rappahannock.
In April, 1864, the "114th" was honored by selection as the first of six regiments of infantry and one regiment of cavalry organized as an independent brigade for duty at the headquarters of Gen. Meade. Col. Collis was appointed commander of this body of troops. This duty continued until March 15th, 1865, and involved the assistance of other troops in action, while the elite brigade from headquarters was expected to exhibit a high standard of gallantry.
In the final weeks of activity around Petersburg the "114th" was engaged
in the storming of the Confederate works on April 2d, and, during
the pursuit, at Sailor's Creek. At the affair of the 2d, three veteran officers who had originally served in the Zouaves d'Afrique of 1861 lost
their lives. They were Capt. A. J. Cunningham, Company A, Maj. Henry M. Eddy,** and First-Lieut. Edward T. Marion, Company I.
After the Appomattox surrender the "i 14th" was transferred to the Fifth Corps, with which the Zouaves marched to Washington, where they were mustered out on May 29th, 1865.
Killed or died from wounds............................................................officers,
6; men, 83.
Died of disease or other causes...................................................... " 1; " 35.
Wounded, not mortally................................................................... " 16; " 261.
Captured or missing....................................................................... " 4; " 122.
(Including those of the Zouaves d'Afrique, afterward Company A, prior to the organization of the regiment.)
Middletown, Cedar Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorville, Gettysburg, Wapping Heights, Auburn, Kelly's Ford, Mine Run, Wilderness, Guinea's Station, Petersburg.
*An incident following the battle was the capture of the regimental band of seventeen pieces, with their instruments. The unfortunate musicians were eventually exchanged, and being provided with new instruments, remained with the regiment to the end of the war. (Bates' History, vol. 3, page 1185.)
**Maj. Eddy was commissioned but not mustered.