Chronology of the Spanish American War


           January 8 -
                      A second appeal by President McKinley for contributions to aid suffering Cubans
                      announced the co-operation of the American Red Cross Society.
          January 12 -
                      Rioters instigated by volunteers in Havana made a demonstration against newspaper
                      offices of El Reconcentrado.
          January 17 -
                      General Lee, in communications to the State Department, suggested that a ship be sent to
                      protect Americans in Havana in the event of another riot
          January 21 -
                      General Castellanos with 1,600 troops raided Esperanza, the seat of the insurgent
                      government in the Cubitas Mountains. Government officials escaped.
          January 24 -
                      Battleship Maine ordered to Havana.
          January 25 -
                      Battleship Maine arrived at Havana and moored at the govermnent anchorage.
          January 25 -
                      Filibuster steamer Tillie foundered in Long Island Sound, four men drowned.
          January 27 -
                      Brigadier-General Aranguren was surprised and killed in his camp near Tapaste, Havana
                      province, by Lieutenant-Colonel Benedicto with the Spanish Reina Battalion. He had
                      recently put to death Lieutenant-Colonel Ruiz, who had brought him an offer of money
                      from Captain-General Blanco to accept autonomy.
          February 9 -
                      Copy of a letter written by Dupuy de Lome attacking President McKinlev printed. Señor
                      Dupuy de Lome admitted writing the letter, and his recall was demanded by the State
         February 15 -
                      Battleship Maine blown up in Havana harbor, 264 men and two officers killed. Spanish
                      Minister De Lome sailed for Spain.
         February 16 -
                      General Lee asked for a court of inquiry on the Maine disaster.
         February 17 -
                      Captains W. T. Sampson and F. E. Chadwick, and Lieutenant-Commanders W. P. Potter
                      and Adolph Marix, detailed as Naval Board of Inquiry.
         February 18 -
                      Spanish warship Vizcaya arrived at New York harbor.
         February 21 -
                      Naval court of inquiry arrived at Havana and began investigation
         February 25 -
                   Vizcaya sailed from New York for Havana.
             March 6 -
                      Spain unofficially asks for Fitzhugh Lee's recall.
             March 8 -
                      $50,000,000 war fund voted unanimously by the House of Representatives.
             March 9 -
                      War fund of $50,000,000 passed unanimously by the Senate.
            March 12 -
                      Government purchased Brazilian cruiser Amazonas and other ships abroad
            March 14 -
                      Spain's torpedo flotilla sailed for Cape Verde Islands.
            March 17 -
                      Senator Redfield Proctor, in a speech to the Senate, told of the starvation and ruin he had
                      observed in Cuba.
            March 21 -
                   Maine Court of Inquiry finished its report and delivered it to Admiral Sicard at Key West.
            March 22 -
                   Maine report sent to Washington.
            March 25 -
                   Maine report delivered to the President, and officially announced that the Maine was
                      blown up by a mine.
            March 26 -
                      President McKinley sent two notes to Spain one on the Maine report, and the other
                      calling for the cessation of the war in Cuba.
            March 28 -
                      President McKinley sent the Maine report to Congress, with a brief message stating
                      that Spain had been informed of the court's findings.
            March 28 -
                      Report of the Spanish Court of Inquiry, declaring the Maine was destroyed by an
                      interior explosion, was received in Washington.
            March 30 -
                      President McKinley, through Minister Woodford, asked Spain for a cessation of hostilities
                      in Cuba and negotiations for ultimate independence.
            March 31 -
                      Spain refused to accede to any of President McKinley's propositions.
              April 1 -
                      House of Representatives appropriated $22,648,000 to build war vessels.
              April 6 -
                      Pope cabled President McKinley to suspend extreme measures pending the Vatican's
                      negotiations with Spain.
              April 7 -
                      Ambassadors of England, Germany, France, Italy, Austria and Russia appealed to the
                      President for peace.
              April 9 -
                      Spain ordered Captain-General Blanco to proclaim an armistice in Cuba
              April 9 -
                      Consul Fitzhugh Lee and American citizens left Havana.
             April 11 -
                      President sent consular reports and message to Congress, asking authority to stop the war
                      in Cuba.
             April 16 -
                      United States Army began moving to the coast.
             April 19 -
                      Both Houses of Congress adopted resolutions declaring Cuba free and empowering the
                      President to compel Spain to withdraw her army and navy.
             April 20 -
                      President McKinley signed the resolutions and sent his ultimatum to Spain, and the Queen
                      Regent sent a warlike message to the Cortes.
             April 21 -
                      Minister Woodford was given his passport.
             April 22 -
                      The President issued his proclamation to the neutral powers, announcing that Spain and
                      the United States were at war. Commodore Sampson's fleet sailed from Key West to be in
                      a blockade of Havana. Gunboat Nashville captured the Spanish ship Buena Ventura.
             Apri] 23 -
                      President issued a call for 125,000 volunteers.
             April 24 -
                      Spain formally declared that war existed with the United States.
             Apri] 25 -
                      Commodore George Dewey's fleet ordered to sail from Hong Kong for the Philippines.
             Apri] 27 -
                      Matanzas bombarded by the New York, Cincinnati and Puritan.
             April 30 -
                      Spanish Admiral Pascual Cervera and his squadron left the Cape Verde Islands for the West Indies.
                May 1
                      Commodore Dewey defeated Admiral Montojo in Manila Bay, destroying eleven ships
                      and killing and wounding more than five hundred of the enemy. American casualities, seven
                      men slightly wounded.
              May 11 -
                      Commodore Dewey promoted to be a rear-admiral. Attacks made on Cienfuegos and
                      Cárdenas, at which Ensign Worth Bagley and five of the Winslow's crew killed.
              May 11 -
                      Admiral Cervera's squadron sighted off Martinique.
              May 12 -
                      Commodore Sampson bombarded San Juan, Puerto Rico, but caused little damage.
              May 13 -
                      The F]ying Squadron, under Commodore Schley, left Hampton Roads for Cuban
              May 17 -
                      Cervera's fleet, after coaling at Curaçao, put into the harbor of Santiago de Cuba.
              May 22 -
                      Cruiser Charleston sailed from San Francisco for Manila.
              May 24 -
                      Battleship Oregon arrived off Jupiter Inlet, Fla., from her great trip from San Francisco,
                      which she left March.
              May 25 -
                      The President issued his second call for volunteers, 75,000. First Manila expedition left
                      San Francisco.
              May 27 -
                      Commodore Schley discovered that Cervera's fleet was in Santiago harbor and
                      blockaded him.
              May 30 -
                      Commodore Sampson's fleet joined Commodore Schley's.
              May 31 -
                      Forts commanding the entrance to Santiago harbor bombarded.
              June 3 -
                      Hobson and seven men sank the Merrimac in the channel entrance to Santiago harbor,
                      and being captured were confined in Morro Castle.
              June 6 -
                      Spanish cruiser Reina Mercedes sunk in the Santiago harbor entrance by the Spaniards
                      to prevent ingress of American war vessels.
             June 11 -
                      Body of marines landed at Guantanamo from the Marblehead and Texas, and had a
                      brisk skirmish.
          June 12-14 -
                      General Shafter embarked at Tampa for Santiago with an army of 16,000 men.
             June 15 -
                      Caimanera forts bombarded by our war ships.
             June 15 -
                      Admiral Cámara with a fleet of ten of Spain's best war ships left Cádiz for Manila
             June 20 -
                      General Shafter disembarked his army of invasion at Daiquirí, with a loss of one man killed
                      and two wounded.
             June 21 -
                      Angara capital of Guam, one of the islands of the Ladrones, captured by the Charleston.
             June 24 -
                      In Cuba, Juraguá captured and the Spanish were defeated nt Las Guásimas. Heavy loss on both
                      sides, among the Americans killed being Capron and Fish.
             June 28 -
                      General Merritt left for Manila to assume command of the American army operating in the
              July 1 -
                      Terrific fighting in front of Santiago. El Caney and San Juan Hill were carried by assaults in
                      which the American loss was great.
              July 3 -
                      Admiral Cervera's squadron of four armored cruisers and two torpedo-boat destroyers
                      annihilated by Commodore Schley's blockading fleet. The surrender of Santiago was
                      demanded by General Shafter.
              July 6 -
                      Hobson and his comrades were exchanged for six Spanish officers
              July 8 -
                      Admiral Cámara was ordered to return with his fleet to Cádiz to protect Spanish coast
                      threatened by American warships.
             July 10 -
                      A second bombardment of Santiago, which severely battered Morro Castle.
             July 11 -
                      General Miles joined the American Army before Santiago and conferred wth General
                      Shafter as to the means for reducing the city
             July 17 -
                      After the expiration of two periods of truce General Toral surrendered Santiago and the
                      eastern province of Cuba to General Shafter.
             July 20 -
                      General Leonard Wood was appointed Military Governor of Santiago, and entered upon
                      his duties by feeding the hungry, clothing the destitute and cleaning the city.
             July 21 -
                      The harbor of Nipe was entered by four gunboats, which, after an hours' fierce
                      bombardment, captured the port.
             July 25 -
                      General Miles, with 8,000 men, after a voyage of three days, landed at Guánica, Puerto
                      Rico. He immediately began his march towards Ponce, which surrendered on the 28th.
             July 26 -
                      The French Ambassador at Washington, Jules Cambon, acting for Spain, asked the
                      President upon what terms he would treat for peace.
             July 30 -
                      The President communicated his answer to M. Cambon.
             July 31 -
                      The Spaniards made a night attack on the Americans investing Manila but were repulsed
                      with severe losses.
              August -
                      The Rough Riders left Santiago for Montauk Point, Long Island
            August 9 -
                      A large force of Spanish were defeated at Coamo, Puerto Rico, by General Ernst. The
                      Spanish Government formally accepted the terms of peace submitted by the President
            August 12
                      The peace protocol was signed, an armistice proclaimed, and the Cuban blockade raised.
           August 13 -
                      Manila was bombarded by Dewey's fleet and simultaneously attacked by the American
                      land forces, under which combined assaults the city surrendered unconditionally
           August 20 -
                      Great naval demonstration in New York harbor.
           August 22 -
                      All troops under General Merritt remaining at San Francisco ordered to Honolulu.
           August 23 -
                      Bids opened for the construction of twelve torpedo boats and sixteen destroyers. General
                      Merritt appointed governor of Manila. General Otis assumed command of the Eighth
                      Corps in the Philippines.
           August 25 -
                      General Shafter left Santiago.
           August 26 -
                      President officially announced the names of the American Peace Commissioners. Last of
                      General Shafter's command leaves Santiago for this country.
           August 29 -
                      Lieutenant Hobson arrived at Santiago to direct the raising of the María Teresa and
                   Cristobal Colón.
           August 30 -
                      General Wheeler ordered an investigation of Camp Wikoff.
         September 2 -
                      Spanish Government selected three peace commissioners.
         September 3 -
                      President visited Montauk.
         September 9 -
                      Peace Commission completed by the appointment of Senator Gray. President ordered
                      investigation of War Department.
        September 10 -
                      Spanish Cortes approved Peace Protocol
        September 11 -
                      American Puerto Rico Evacuation Commission met in joint session at San Juan.
        September 12 -
                      Admiral Pascual Cervera left Portsmouth, N. H., for Spain.
        September 13 -
                     Roosevelt's Rough Riders mustered out of service. Spanish Senate approved Protocol.
        September 14 -
                      Evacuation of Puerto Rico began. Queen Regent signed Protocol.
        September 17 -
                      American Cuban Evacuation Commissions met in joint session at Havana. Peace
                      Commissioners sailed for Paris.
        September 20 -
                      Spanish evacuation of outlying ports in Puerto Rico began. First American flag raised in
        September 24 -
                      Jurisdiction of Military Governor Wood extended to embrace entire province of Santiago
                      de Cuba. First meeting of the War Investigating Committee held at the White House.
        September 25 -
                      Lieutenant Hobson floated the María Teresa.
        September 27 -
                      American Peace Commissioners convened in Paris.
        September 28 -
                      American Commissioners received by French Minister of Foreign Affairs.
        September 29 -
                      Spanish and American Commissioners met for first time, at breakfast given at the Foreign
                      Offce, Paris.
           October 1 -
                      Peace Commissioners held first joint session.
           October 4 -
                      2,000 irregular Spanish troops revolted near Cienfuegos and refused to lay down arms
                      until paid back salaries. Battleship Illinois launched at Newport News.
          October 1O -
                      American flag hoisted over Manzanillo, Cuba.
          October 12 -
                      Battleships Iowa and Oregon left New York for Manila.
          October 16 -
                      Opening of Peace Jubilee in Chicago.
          October 18 -
                      United States took formal possession of Puerto Rico.
          October 24 -
                      Spanish evacuation of Puerto Rico completed
          October 25 -
                      Philadelphia Jubilee began with naval parade in the Delaware.
          October 30 -
                      Cruiser María Teresa left Caimanera for Hampton Roads.
          October 31 -
                      American Peace Commissioners demanded cession of entire Philippine group.
          November 5 -
                   María Teresa, cruiser, reported lost off San Salvador, Bahamas.
          November 8 -
                   María Teresa reported ashore at Cat Island, Bahamas.
         November 17 -
                      Evacuation of Camp Meade completed
         November 21 -
                      American ultimatum presented to Spanish Peace Commissioners.
         November 25 -
                      First United States troops landed in Havana province.
         November 28 -
                      Spain agreed to cede Phllippines.
         November 30 -
                      Captain-General Blanco left Havana for Spain.
         December 10 -
                      Peace Treaty signed.
         December 11 -
                      Small riot in Havana. Three Cubans killed.
         December 14 -
                      Fitzhugh Lee arrived in Havana.
         December 24 -
                      Peace Treaty delivered to President McKinley.
         December 27 -
                      American Evacuation Commissioners issued a proclamation to the inhabitants of Cuba.
         December 31 -
                      Last day of Spanish sovereignty in Westem Hemisphere.