Chronology of the Cuban War of Independence


         February 24 -
                      Grito de Baire. Insurgents rose against Spanish tyranny in Oriente, Santa Clara and Matanzas provinces.
             March 4 -
                      Govemor-General proclaimed martial law iu Santiago and Matanzas. Julio Sanguily, J
                      Aguirre and other suspected Cuban sympathizers arrested and incarcerated in Cabañas
                      prison at Havana.
             March 8 -
                      American mail steamship Allianca fired upon by Spanish gunboat.
            March l0 -
                      First battle of the war at Los Negros between l,000 Spanish, under General Garrich, and
                      700 Cubans, under Colonel Goulet. Spaniards defeated. Spanish reinforcements arrive
                      fronu Puerto Rico and 7,000 men from Spain. Field Marshal Arsenio Martínez Campos appointed
                      Captain-General to succeed Calleja, and sent to Cuba with 20,000 troops. Martial law
                      proclaimed over whole island.
            March 24 -
                      Pitched battle at Jaraguana between l,000 Spanish troops, under Colonel Araoz, and 900
                      Cubans, under Amador Guerra.
            March 31 -
                      Antonio Maceo, with Flor Crombet, Dr. Frank Agrarnonte, Jose Maceo and other
                      officers, landed at Baracoa with expedition from Costa Rica in British schooner Honor.
                      Schooner wrecked and captain killed by Spaniards. Latter attacked Maceo at Duaba but
                      were repulsed. Agramonte captured. Provisional government proclaimed by Maceo; Dr.
                      Tomás Estrada Palma, president, José Martí, secretary-general, and General Máximo
                      Gómez, military director aud commander-in-chief.
              April 13
                      General Máximo Gómez, José Martí and eight companions arrived from Haiti and
                      landed on the coast southwest of Cape Maisi.
             April 16 -
                      Captain-General Martinez Campos landed with reinforcements at Guantanamo and issued
                      proclamation pledging reforms. Spanish parliament authorized government to raise
                      600,000,000 pesetas (120,000,000) for war and decided to send 40,000 reinforcements.
          April 16-18 -
                      Battles at and near Sabana de Jaibo. Cuban cavalry under Gomez defeated Colonel Bosch.
             April 21 -
                      Battle of Ramón de las Jaguas, 100 Spaniards killed.
             April 29 -
                      Josó Maceo ambuscaded 700 Spaniards at Arroyo Hondo; 150 Spaniards killed and
                      heavy Cuban losses
            May 6-14 -
                      Raids and fights at Jobito and Cristo by Maceo; Spauish Lieutenant-Colonel Bosch killed.
              May 18 -
                      Insurgent Convention elected Bartolomé Massó president, Máximo Gómez
                      general-in-chief, and Antonio Maceo commander-in-chief of the Oriental Division.
              May 19 -
                      José Martí and party of 50 annihilated by colonel Ximenez Sandoval and 800 troops in a narrow
                      pass; Gómez with reinforcements attempted to rescue Martí's body aud was wounded;
                      Cuban loss, 50 killed and l00 wounded. Dr. Tomás Estrada Palma elected to succeed
                      Martí as Cuban Revolutionary Party delegate in the United States.
              May 20 -
                      Colonel Lacret and Colonel Torres landed with filibustering expedition of 220 men from
              June 2 -
                      Gomez crossed trocha and entered province of Puerto Principe.
              June 5 -
                      General Carlos Roloff's filibustering expedition, with 353 men, 1,000 rifles and 500
                      pounds of dynamite, landed by tugboat George W. Childs near Sagua Lachico, in
                      Santa Clara.
             June 12 -
                      President Cleveland issued proclamation warning citizens against joining or aiding
                      filibustering expeditions
             June 18 -
                      Province of Puerto Principe declared in a state of siege.
             June 27 -
                      Captain-General Campos asked Cabinet for 14,000 fresh troops.
              July 1 -
                      Campos established Moron-Jucaro trocha to keep Gómez out of Santa Clara Province
             July 13 -
                      Captain-General Campos, at head of 1,500 troops, attacked but defeated by Cubans
                      under Maceo at Peralejo and compelled to retreat to Bayamo; Spanish General
                      Santocildes aud l19 men killed; Cuban loss, l00 men.
             July 15 -
                      Provisional Government formally constituted and a declaration of independence
            August 7 -
                      Cuban Convention at Puerto Principe elected the following officers: Provisional President
                      of the Republic of Cuba, General Bartolomé Massó, Minister of the Interior Marquis of
                      Santa Lucia; Vice-President and Minister of War, General Máximo Gómez Secretary of
                      Foreign Affairs, Gonzalo de Quesada; General-in-Chief, General Antonio Maceo.
           August 31 -
                      Spaniards defeated by 1,000 men under José Maceo, near Ramon de la Jaguas
        September 23 -
                      Constitution of Cuban Republic proclaimed by Congress of Delegates at Anton de Puerto
                      Principe, and the following elected permanent officers of the government: President,
                      Salvador Cisneros; Vice-President, Bartolomé Massó; Secretary of War, Carlos Roloff;
                      Commander-in-Chief, Máximo Gómez, Lieutenant-General, Antonio Maceo.
           October 2 -
                      Maceo defeated superior force of 2,000 Spaniards at Mount Mogote.
           Octoher 9 -
                      Cuban loan of 15,000,000 pesos ($3,000,000) placed in Paris
           October l0 -
                      Baracoa captured hy Cubans
          October 27 -
                      General Carlos M. de Cesspedes landed near Baracoa with filibustering expedition of
                      sixty men, l00 rifles and l0,000 rounds of ammunition, fitted out in Canada. Laurada
                      seized at Charleston, S. C., as a filibuster.
      November 18-l9 -
                      Spanish forces under Generals Valdes, Luque and Aldave defeated at Taguasco, Spanish
                      loss, 500
         December 26 -
                      Gómez invaded the loyal Province of Havana.


          Januuary 5 -
                      Gómez passes the Habana-Batabanó trocha into Pinar del Rio.
          January 12 -
                      Gomez defeated Spaniards at Batallobo and recrossed trocha into Havana Province.
        January 12-20 -
                      Maceo raided Pinar del Rio Province.
          January 17 -
                      Captain-General Canupos recalled to Madrid and General Valeriano Weyler appointed to
                      succeed him.
          January 26 -
                      Filibuster J. W. Hawkins, carrying General Calixto García and 120 men, sunk off Long
                      Island and ten men drowned.
          January 30 -
                      Maceo recrossed Habana-Batabanó trocha; Spaniards severely defeated by Diaz near
         February 10 -
                      General Weyler arrived at Havana on the cruiser Alfonso XIII and was enthusiastically
         February 17 -
                      Weyler issued three proclamations establishing rigid martial law.
         February 18 -
                      Maceo attacked and captured Jaruco; the next day he joined Gómez, and together they
                      marched eastward.
         February 22 -
                      Eighteen non-combatants killed by Spanish troops in Punta Brava and Guatao, and two
                      American correspondents who investigated outrage arrested.
         February 24 -
                      Filibuster Bermuda seized by United States marshals, General García and others
                      arrested, tried and acquitted.
         February 28 -
                      Senate adopted belligerency resolutions and requested President to use "friendly offices"
                      to secure Cuban independence
             March 5 -
                      Weyler issued proclamation offering amnesty to Cubans who surrendered with arms in
             March 8 -
                      Eighteen thousand Spanish reinforcements landed at Havana.
            March 12 -
                      Commodore landed a filibustering expedition from Charleston, S.C.
            March 13 -
                      Maceo captured the town of Batabanó.
            March 15 -
                      Maceo re-entered Pinar del Río Province and attacked the town of Pinar del Río.
            March 22 -
                      Gómez captured the town of Santa Clara and secured a large amount of military stores.
            March 25 -
                      Bermuda landed General Calixto García with 125 men and arms in Cuba. Three Friends and
                      Mallory landed a big expedition under General Enrique Collazo on the coast of Matanzas
              April 6 -
                      U.S. House of Representatives concurred in Senate's Cuban resolution.
             April 25 -
                      American filibustering schooner Competitor captured off coast of Pinar del Río.
                      Alfredo Laborde and three Americans taken prisoners.
             April 27 -
                      Bermuda fired upon by Spanish gunboat while trying to land expedition under Colonels
                      Vidal and Torres and forced to abandon the attempt.
              May 14 -
                      Gómez captured a whole Spanish battalion under Colonel Segura.
              May 16 -
                      Laurada landed General J. F. Ruiz and expedition in Cuba.
              May 19 -
                      Three Friends landed large cargo of ammunition in Santa Clara.
              June 3 -
                      Consul-General Fitzhugh Lee arrived at Havana as the successor of Ramon O. Williams,
             June 15 -
                      Expeditions under Zarrago, Castillo and Cabrera landed by Three Friends and Laurada.
              July 5 -
                      José Maceo killed in an engagement at Loma del Gato.
             July 15 -
                      General Inclan badly defeated by Maceo at Cacarajicara, 200 killed and nearly 300
             July 30 -
                      President Grover Cleveland issued another proclamation against filibustering.
           August 15 -
                      General Rabí defeated Spaniards near Bayamo.
          December 7 -
                      General Antonio Maceo and Francisco Gómez, son of the rebel commander-in-chief, were
                      killed in an engagement with a Spanish detachment under Major Cirujeda just after Maceo
                      had succeeded in passing around the end of the Mariel trocha. Dr. Zertucha, the only
                      member of the staff who escaped, was accused of treachery. He surrendered to the
         December 15 -
                      Three Friends tried to land a large expedition at the mouth of the San Juan River, on the
                      south coast of Cuba, but was fired on by a Spanish gunboat and compelled to put to sea
                      again with her party, setting them down on a desert Florida key, where they were rescued
                      by the Dauntless.
         December 20 -
                      General Ruiz Rivera succeeded Maceo as commander-in-chief of the Cuban army of the
         December 28 -
                      Julio Sanguilly was tried and sentenced to imprisonment for life on a charge of conspiring
                      against the Spanish Government.
         December 31 -
                      Filibuster Commodore sailed from Jacksonville, Florida, with a small expedition for Cuba and
                      sunk sixteen miles off the Florida coast. Most of the men were saved.


          January 13 -
                      Spaniards under General Segura attacked General Calixto García at Gabuquito, and were
                      repulsed with a loss of 300 killed and 400 wounded.
          February 4 -
                      Queen Regent of Spain signed a decree instituting reforms in Cuba
         February 21 -
                      U.S. Secretary of State Olney directed Minister Taylor, at Madrid, to demand a full inquiry into
                      the case of Dr. Ricardo Ruiz, who was murdered in prison, in Guanabacoa, by the
             March 4 -
                      General Valeriano Weyler returned to Havana.
            March 21 -
                      Insurgents captured Holguin.
            March 28 -
                      General Rius Rivera, who succeeded Antonio Maceo, was captured with 100 men at
                      Cabezedas, by General Hernández Velasco.
            March 30 -
                      Laurada landed at Banes, on the north coast of Oriente, three dynamite guns, one
                      Hotchkiss gun and a large quantity of ammunition.
             April 17 -
                      Weyler declared that the province of Santa Clara and part of Puerto Principe were
              May 12 -
                      Generals Calixto García and Rabí defeated Spanish troops under General Lonos and
                      compelled them to retreat on shipboard at Cabo Cruz.
              May 17 -
                      President McKinley sent a message to Congress suggesting an appropriation of $50,000
                      to relieve the distress of American citizens in Cuba. It was passed by Congress and signed
                      May 24.
             June 21 -
                      General Weyler sailed from Havana for Santa Clara province, preceded by thirty-six
                      battalions of infantry and strong forces of artillery and cavalry.
             June 27 -
                      General Weyler reached the city of Santiago.
         November 10 -
                      Marshal Ramón Blanco sent a cable to Senor de Lome, Spanish Minister at Washington,
                      announcing that extensive zones of cultivation had been marked out, rations issued to the
                      reconcentrados, and promised that thereafter they would be fed and treated well
         November 14 -
                      General Blanco sent envoys to insurgent generals to induce them to lay down their arms.
         November 18 -
                      Crew of the American schooner Competitor captured in 1896 and all sentenced to
                      death were released.
         November 25 -
                      Dr. Frank Agramonte, Thomas J. Sainz and other Americans imprisoned in Havana were
                      released by Marshal Blanco.
         November 26 -
                      Queen Regent of Spain signed royal decrees granting political and commercial autonomy
                      to Cuba.
          December 2 -
                      Bishop of Havana appealed for food for starving reconcentrados.
          December 9 -
                      Antonio Rodriguez Rivera, an envoy sent by Blanco to bribe the insurgents, was hanged
                      by the insurgent leader Emilio Collazo.
        December 10 -
                      Insurgents captured the seaport town of Caimanera.
         December 28 -
                      President McKinley issued an appeal to the country to aid starving Cubans.